Production of pilocarpine in callus of jaborandi (pilocarpus microphyllus stapf)

  title={Production of pilocarpine in callus of jaborandi (pilocarpus microphyllus stapf)},
  author={Ilka N. Abreu and Alexandra C.H.F. Sawaya and Marcos N. Eberlin and Paulo Mazzafera},
  journal={In Vitro Cellular \& Developmental Biology - Plant},
SummaryJaborandi (Pilocarpus microphyllus) is the only known source of pilocarpine, and although this alkaloid is the only natural compoud used to treat glaucoma, very little is known about its metabolism. Calluses obtained from petioles of P. microphyllus leaves were partially immersed in MS (Murashige and Skoog) liquid medium containing different pH levels (4.8, 5.8, and 6.8), nutrient concentration (MS normal basal medium concentration, absence of N, P, and K and three times normal… 

Cell suspension as a tool to study the biosynthesis of pilocarpine in Jaborandi.

Cell suspensions can be used as a model to study the biosynthesis of the imidazole alkaloid in P. microphyllus, and ESI-MS analysis showed that cell culture extracts have the same alkaloids composition as extracts made from leaves.

Metabolic alterations in different developmental stages of Pilocarpus microphyllus.

The results suggest that pilosine is produced exclusively in mature developmental stage, and juvenile plant material seems to be appropriate for further studies on pilocarpine biosynthesis.

HPLC-ESI-MS/MS of Imidazole Alkaloids in Pilocarpus microphyllus

In the present study, a HPLC method coupled with ESI-MSn was developed for their qualitative and quantitative analysis and may be applied to further studies of the biosynthetic pathway of pilocarpine in P. microphyllus.

Optimization of Air Temperature and Medium pH Enhanced Growths and 1'-Acetoxychavicol Acetate (ACA) Content of Galangal (Alpinia galanga) Plantlets in vitro

Galangal (Alpinia galanga) is a tropical rhizome-producing plant that produced 1′- acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA) which has been used as a traditional herb in South-Eastern Asian. However, the

Enhancement of Growth and Alkaloids Accumulation in Hyoscyamus muticus L. Callus Cultures by High Salt Concentration

The effect of different concentrations of NaCl (6, 8 and 10 dS/m) on growth and alkaloids production in 21 days-old callus of Egyptian henbane (Hyoscyamu muticus L.) was studied. Results showed that

Unraveling the Biosynthesis of Pilocarpine in Pilocarpus microphyllus

A biosynthesis pathway for pilocarpine is suggested and further experiments using labeled precursors associated with transcriptome data may allow to understand the whole biosynthetic pathway and its genetic control.

Sustainability of Jaborandi in the eastern Brazilian Amazon

Production of imidazole alkaloids in cell cultures of jaborandi as affected by the medium pH

The effect of pH on the production of pilosine and pilocarpine and on their partition between cell and medium was studied in two lineages of Pilocarpus microphyllus cell suspension cultures and the pH in the media cultures tended to stabilize around 6 after 10–15 days of cultivation.

Characterization of the variation in the imidazole alkaloid profile of Pilocarpus microphyllus in different seasons and parts of the plant by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry fingerprinting and identification of novel alkaloids by tandem mass spectrometry.

Analysis of the distribution of alkaloids in different parts of the plant during the summer showed that, although pilocarpine was present throughout the plant, 13-nor-8(11)-dihydropilocarpin was found mainly in the stem, pilosine and anhydropilosine were present mainly inThe intermediary leaves, and the three new alkaloid were mainly found in the leaflets and petioles.



Jaborandi (Pilocarpus sp., rutaceae): A wild species

The current systems of production of jaborandi leaves in Maranhão, Northeastern Brazil are discussed, with the potential effects of the plantation contributing to diminishing the pressure on wild populations; impact on the local people currently involved in the extractivism; and its impacts in the local economies.

Extrativismo, cultivo e privatização do jaborandi (Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf ex Holm.; Rutaceae) no Maranhão, Brasil

A process associated with frontier expansion in developing countries is the privatization of natural resources formerly held in common by traditional populations. An example of this transformation

Datura stramonium hairy roots tropane alkaloid content as a response to changes in Gamborg’s B5 medium

Hairy roots are less susceptible to manipulation by changes in medium composition than callus and cell suspension cultures. However, when the individual components of the Gamborg’s B5 medium were

Free-radical Scavengers and Antioxidants from Peumus boldus Mol. ("Boldo")

The high catechin content of boldo leaves and its bioactivity suggest that quality control of Boldo folium has to combine the analysis of cATEchin as well as their characteristic aporphine alkaloids.

Effect of NaCl on growth, morphology, and camptothecin accumulation in Camptotheca acuminata seedlings

A concentration of 75 mM is the threshold for NaCl to exert a detrimental effect on C. acuminata seedlings, and high NaCl levels (above 75 mM) increased camptothecin concentrations both in leaves and roots, whereas low NaCl Levels had no effect on campthecin concentrations.

Methyl jasmonate vapor increases the developmentally controlled synthesis of alkaloids in Catharanthus and Cinchona seedlings

Summary Shortly after germination, alkaloids are rapidly synthesized in seedlings of both Catharanthus roseus L.G. Don and Cinchona ledgeriana Moens. The effect of low-level, atmospheric methyl