Production of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL): isolation and evaluation of yeast strains suitable for commercial production of l-phenylalanine

@article{Evans1987ProductionOP,
  title={Production of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL): isolation and evaluation of yeast strains suitable for commercial production of l-phenylalanine},
  author={Christopher Thomas Evans and Kim Hanna and Dayle Conrad and Wendy Peterson and Masanaru Misawa},
  journal={Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology},
  year={1987},
  volume={25},
  pages={406-414}
}
SummaryPhenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase (PAL) containing microorganisms were isolated from a wide variety of natural habitats. The best 21 strains to emerge from the primary screen were screened for PAL activities in both directions using l-phenylalanine and t-cinnamate substrates. Twelve of the latter strains were compared for total cell production and PAL activity and 7 isolates were chosen for examination of the extent of PAL induction in various media. On the basis of these screens, isolate SPA… 
Strain Improvement of Rhodotorula graminis for Production of a Novel l-Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase
TLDR
Strain GX6000 PAL showed significantly greater stability in bioreactors for the synthesis of l-phenylalanine, a finding that is consistent with the stability properties observed during fermentation.
GROWTH AND PHENYLALANINE AMMONIA LYASE ACTIVITY OF Rhodotorula g/utinis: OPTIMIZATION OF CONDITIONS FOR THE SYNTHESIS OF L-PHENYLALANINE
TLDR
Optimal conditions determined for yeast growth and PAL production were pH 6, 1% inoculum, 30°C for 26-28 h, and 85% conversion of substrate to product was obtained.
Novel stabilization of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase catalyst during bioconversion of trans-cinnamic acid to l-phenylalanine
SummaryProduction of l-phenylalanine from trans-cinnamic acid using isolate SPA10 cells was reduced to 26% of that observed initially when cells were reacted a second time with fresh substrate
Isolation of various hyperactive mutants of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase containing yeasts
TLDR
Various strains of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) containing yeasts were mutagenised using ultraviolet (UV) irradiation using analogues used to select the greatest frequency of mutants with the highest PAL activities: one such mutant, FP10M6, exhibited five times the PAL activity of the parent SPA 10.
Biotransformation of phenylpyruvic acid to l-phenylalanine using a strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 11250 with high transaminase activity
TLDR
Immobilisation of cells in calcium alginate and operation of a packed bed bioreactor enabled the continuous production of l-phenylalanine in concentrations greater than 15 g·l-1 after 60 days operation.
Cloning, expression and characterization of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase from Rhodotorula glutinis
TLDR
The full-length gene of PAL from Rhodotorula glutinis, an anamorph of Rhodosporium toruloides, was isolated and exhibited the highest catalytic ability among the reported PALs.
Rhodotorula Glutinis: Strain Enrichment and Evaluation of Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase
2006 NSIS Honourable Mention, Undergraduate Student Research Prize Winning Paper The enrichment of a Rhodotorula glufinis strain and the determination of its phenylalanine ammonia lyase (E.C.4.3.1.5
Phenylalanine and tyrosine metabolism in the facultative methylotroph Nocardia sp. 239
TLDR
Double mutants blocked in both phenylalanine dehydrogenase and phenylpyruvate decarboxylase completely failed to catabolize phenylAlanine and the absence of these enzymes did not affect growth on tyrosine.
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TLDR
In this study, R. glutinis appeared to express a single lyase enzyme, regardless of whether induction was nitrogen signaled or carbon signaled, and Thin-layer chromatographic analysis of ether extracts prepared from cultures induced with doubly labeled L-phenylalanine provided evidence of a catabolic sequence containing cinnamic acid, benzoic acid, and 4-hydroxybenzoic Acid as degradative intermediates.
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TLDR
The synthesis of enzyme antigen by a mutant unable to metabolize phenylalanine indicated that this amino acid is the physiological inducer of the enzyme.
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TLDR
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TLDR
The enzyme activity was kept stable for a relatively long time during cultivation by the addition of l-isoleucine and may provide a rapid and practical way to produce l-phenylalanine useful as an essential amino acid.
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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