Helicobacter pylori is present in the antral region of the stomach in a majority of patients with gastritis type B. The specific mechanism whereby the organism participates in the development of disease remains uncertain. Since the organism is not invasive, we postulate thatH. pylori produces a chemoattractant that recruits inflammatory cells to the antral region of the stomach.H. pylori was grown under microaerophilic conditions at 37°C for 72 hr inBrucella broth containing 1% fetal bovine serum. Culture supernates were harvested after removal of organisms by centrifugation and filtration. The putative chemoattractant in culture supernates as well as that which might be present endogenously in the growth medium (negative control) was assayed against human neutrophils (PMN) in modified Boyden blind-well chambers using 3.0-μm membranes. We found thatH. pylori supernates are chemotactic and showed up to 130% activity when compared to the positive chemoattractant control (zymosan-activated serum, a source of C5a). Minimal activity was observed with virgin growth medium. The chemoattractant activity is proportional to the number of colony forming units (CFU) ofH. pylori. Preliminary characterization of the activity shows that the chemoattractant is stable in a boiling water bath for 15 min, activity is lost within 1 hr in acid or alkali, and the chemotactic factor has an approximate molecular weight of 8500 daltons. The factor has no amino-sugar and is negative for the lipid, A portion of lipopolysaccharide. The chemotactic factor may be related to the recruitment of PMN into the lamina propria of the stomach in patients with gastritis, and it may afford an additional target for design of unique therapeutic interventions in chronic gastritis.