Production of Human Antibodies to Bee Venom Phospholipase A2 in Vitro

@article{Held1989ProductionOH,
  title={Production of Human Antibodies to Bee Venom Phospholipase A2 in Vitro},
  author={William A. Held and M A Stucki and Christoph H. Heusser and Kurt Blaser},
  journal={Scandinavian Journal of Immunology},
  year={1989},
  volume={29}
}
Phospholipase A2 (PLA) is the major antigen of bee venom. Whereas individuals frequently stung by bees, such as bee keepers, show high levels of IgG4 anti‐PLA antibodies in serum, most patients sensitive to bee venom possess increased IgE anti‐PLA. We have established a culture system by which anti‐PLA antibodies can be induced in vitro. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated in a first step with PLA and/or pokeweed mitogen (PWM). After 3 days of culture the cells were washed and… 
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Bee venom phospholipase A2‐specific T cell clones from human allergic and non‐allergic individuals: cytokine patterns change in response to the antigen concentration

These PLA‐specific Tcell clones could be classified according to the changes in the ratio of IL‐4/IFN‐γ production in response to increasing antigen concentrations, which may be a driving force for IgE or IgG formation resulting in allergy or immunoprotection.

Epitope-specific T cell tolerance to phospholipase A2 in bee venom immunotherapy and recovery by IL-2 and IL-15 in vitro.

The findings indicate that bee venom immunotherapy induces a state of peripheral tolerance in allergen-specific T cells, but not in specific B cells, suggesting the importance of microenvironmental cytokines leading to success or failure in immunotherapy.

Type I skin reactivity to native and recombinant phospholipase A2 from honeybee venom is similar.

Shift from Th2 to Th1 response in immunotherapy with venoms

Cytokines released from T lymphocytes regulate antibody production by B lymphocytes and releasability of mast cells and basophils and time pattern of cytokines secreted from PBMCs after stimulation with PMA and ionomycine was different than after stimulation through T-cell receptor/CD3 complex.

A system for stable indirect immobilization of multimeric recombinant proteins.

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