Production of Bacillus cereus emetic toxin (cereulide) in various foods.

  title={Production of Bacillus cereus emetic toxin (cereulide) in various foods.},
  author={Norio Agata and Michio Ohta and Keiko Yokoyama},
  journal={International journal of food microbiology},
  volume={73 1},
To determine the role of Bacillus cereus as a potential pathogen in food poisoning, the production of an emetic toxin (cereulide) by B. cereus was quantified in various food sources. The amount of emetic toxin in 13 of 14 food samples implicated in vomiting-type food poisoning cases ranged from 0.01 to 1.28 microg/g. A vomiting-type strain, B. cereus NC7401, was inoculated into various foods and incubated for 24 h at 20, 30, and 35 degrees C. In boiled rice, B. cereus rapidly increased to 10(7… Expand
Emetic and enterotoxin profiles of food-borne Bacillus cereus strains from Turkey
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Characterization and Exposure Assessment of Emetic Bacillus cereus and Cereulide Production in Food Products on the Dutch Market.
The prevalence of cereulide-contaminated food approached the prevalence of contaminated products estimated in an exposure assessment, and the main food safety focus associated with this pathogen should be to prevent germination and growth of any B. cereus present in food products and thus prevent Cereulide production in foods. Expand
Potential of selected infant food formulas for production of Bacillus cereus emetic toxin, cereulide.
Cereulide producing Bacillus cereus was isolated from randomly chosen commercial infant foods. The cereulide production in infant food formulas was investigated. When the reconstituted foods wereExpand
An emetic Bacillus cereus outbreak in a kindergarten: detection and quantification of critical levels of cereulide toxin.
The importance of defining toxic doses of emetic toxin among high-risk population groups is emphasized, as these levels provoked profuse-vomiting episodes in 20 toddlers aged between 10 and 18 months. Expand
Why be serious about emetic Bacillus cereus: Cereulide production and industrial challenges.
It is emphasized how identification of the cardinals in food production processes can lead to novel effective strategies for prevention of toxin formation in the food processing chain and could contribute to the improvement of existing HACCP studies. Expand
Emetic Bacillus cereus Are More Volatile Than Thought: Recent Foodborne Outbreaks and Prevalence Studies in Bavaria (2007–2013)
This comprehensive study showed that emetic strains are much more volatile than previously thought and highlights the importance and need of novel strategies to move from the currently taxonomic-driven diagnostic to more risk orientated diagnostics to improve food and consumer safety. Expand
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Genotypic approaches tend to be less dependent on bacterial growth variables, less time consuming and useful for determining phylogenetic reltionships between microbial isolates and for assigning strains in specific groups, whereas classical methods which use enrichment methods, are time consuming. Expand
Determination of Bacillus cereus Emetic Toxin in Food Products by Means of LC–MS²
Cereulide is the heat-stable toxin produced by certain strains of Bacillus cereus. It is the main virulence factor of emetic B. cereus strains, which causes the emetic food poisoning syndrome,Expand
Potential of Bacillus cereus for producing an emetic toxin, cereulide, in bakery products: quantitative analysis by chemical and biological methods.
Cereulide is not inactivated by heating during food processing, therefore, direct analysis of this toxin in food is preferable to cultivating methods for assessing the risk of food poisoning by emetic B. cereus. Expand
Influence of type of food on the kinetics and overall production of Bacillus cereus emetic toxin.
A number of factors play a crucial role in the determination of the extent to which, if at all, cereulide will be produced, among those, type of the food, temperature, pH, and whether additional aeration (via incubation on an orbital shaker) is induced had an important role. Expand


Properties and production characteristics of vomiting, diarrheal, and necrotizing toxins of Bacillus cereus.
The emetic toxin responsible for the vomiting-type B. cereus food poisoning syndrome is clearly distinguishable from the diarrheal and other toxic factors and appears to be a highly stable compound of molecular size less than 5000. Expand
Potential application of a HEp‐2 cell assay in the investigation of Bacillus cereus emetic‐syndrome food poisoning
When grown for 15 h in rice culture, 13 out of 15 Bacillus cereus strains associated with emetic-syndrome food poisoning (87%) caused vacuoles to appear in HEp-2 cells, compared with 5 out of 11 B.Expand
Bacillus cereus food poisoning: a provisional serotyping scheme.
Strains from incidents of food poisoning characterised by a longer incubation period and with diarrhoea as the main symptom have provided serotypes 2, 6, 8, 9 and 10, whereas those causing the rice-associated emetic illness are usually serotypes 1, 3 or 5. Expand
Cell Culture Detection and Conditions for Production of a Bacillus cereus Heat-Stable Toxin.
In rice, milk, and brain-heart-infusion cultures, 17 of 67 Bacillus cereus strains produced a heat-stable toxin causing morphological changes in cultures cells, causing granulation, vacuole formation, cell rounding, acid production, and arrested cell multiplication. Expand
Synthesis and activity of cereulide, a cyclic dodecadepsipeptide ionophore as emetic toxin from Bacillus cereus
Abstract Cereulide is the emetic toxin caused by Bacillus cereus as food contaminant. This cyclic depsipeptide was synthesized from L-O-Val, L-Val, L-O-Leu and D-Ala by coupling the former 2 and theExpand
Bacillus cereus produces most emetic toxin at lower temperatures
Seven emetic toxin‐producing strains of Bacillus cereus were examined for toxin production in Skim Milk Medium at incubation temperatures ranging from 10 to 50 °C, and no correlation was found between levels of sporulation and toxin production. Expand
Effects of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Organic Acids on Growth and Germination of Bacillus cereus
  • Hin-Chung Wong, Ya-Lei Chen
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Applied and environmental microbiology
  • 1988
Spores of B. cereus were more resistant to these organic acids compared with the resistance of vegetative cells, but it was inhibited after 48 and 72 h of lactic acid bacterial growth. Expand
A novel dodecadepsipeptide, cereulide, is an emetic toxin of Bacillus cereus.
Cereulide causes emesis through the 5-HT3 receptor and stimulation of the vagus afferent and it is found that the purified cereulide caused swelling of mitochondria of HEp-2 cells. Expand
A novel dodecadepsipeptide, cereulide, isolated from Bacillus cereus causes vacuole formation in HEp-2 cells.
A HEp-2 cell-vacuolation factor was extracted and purified from the culture supernatant of a Bacillus cereus strain which caused emetic-syndrome food poisoning, and the toxin was named as cereulide, a cyclic dodecadepsipeptide, which is closely related to the potassium ionophore, valinomycin. Expand
Bacillus cereus toxins.
  • P. Turnbull
  • Chemistry, Medicine
  • Pharmacology & therapeutics
  • 1981