Production and Toxicity of the Marine Biotoxin Domoic Acid and Its Effects on Wildlife: A Review

@article{Bejarano2008ProductionAT,
  title={Production and Toxicity of the Marine Biotoxin Domoic Acid and Its Effects on Wildlife: A Review},
  author={Adriana C Bejarano and Frances M. VanDola and Frances M.D. Gulland and Teri K. Rowles and Lori H. Schwacke},
  journal={Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal},
  year={2008},
  volume={14},
  pages={544 - 567}
}
ABSTRACT Domoic acid (DA), produced by marine diatom species in the genus Pseudo-nitzschia, is a potent excitotoxin linked since the late 1990s to massive marine mammal and seabird mortalities along the California coast. These and a previous incident involving human intoxication and deaths prompted many studies, some of which have unveiled the trophic transfer of DA from benthic invertebrates and planktivorous fish to top predators, demonstrating serious health risk to marine wildlife and… 
Domoic acid and human exposure risks: a review.
  • K. Lefebvre, A. Robertson
  • Environmental Science
    Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology
  • 2010
Clinical Signs and Pathology Associated With Domoic Acid Toxicosis in Southern Sea Otters (Enhydra lutris nereis)
TLDR
This is the first rigorous case definition to facilitate diagnosis of DA toxicosis in sea otters, and microscopic examination of the pituitary gland, area postrema, other circumventricular organs, and both eyes facilitated confirmation of acute DA Toxicosis inSea otters.
Chapter 38 – Phycotoxins
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References

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TLDR
A bioenergetic model that uses age/sex-specific energy requirements was developed to estimate DA doses, assuming ingestion of 2 important vector species: anchovies Engraulis mordax and sardines Sardinops sagax, and highlighted the most relevant areas of research needed for determining a definitive risk of sea lion exposure to DA.
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TLDR
This work provides the first reported evidence of neurotoxic symptoms in fish and suggests that anchovies may be affected by DA during toxic diatom blooms, as well as providing a possible pathway for the transfer of DA to benthic communities.
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TLDR
Findings provide compelling evidence for the role of krill as a potential transfer agent of the phycotoxin DA to higher trophic levels in marine food web.
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TLDR
Results from this study suggest that anchovies may be a valuable indicator species for assessing the risk of DA intoxication to piscivorous sea birds and mammals during toxic Pseudo-nitzschia blooms in Monterey Bay.
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    Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology
  • 2002
Domoic Acid Transfer to Milk: Evaluation of a Potential Route of Neonatal Exposure
TLDR
This study demonstrates transfer of DA from spiked milk to the plasma of nursing neonatal rats and an overall longer DA retention in milk than in plasma after 8 hr in exposed dams, although the amount of DA transferred to milk after exposure was not sufficient to cause acute symptoms in neonates.
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TLDR
These culture studies suggest that the dDA levels of up to 17.6nmol l−1 measured during September 2003 were owing to toxin produced and released primarily by P. australis cells, illustrating the potential for this species to cause harm.
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TLDR
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