Producers and scroungers: A general model and its application to captive flocks of house sparrows

@article{Barnard1981ProducersAS,
  title={Producers and scroungers: A general model and its application to captive flocks of house sparrows},
  author={C. Barnard and R. Sibly},
  journal={Animal Behaviour},
  year={1981},
  volume={29},
  pages={543-550}
}
Abstract Many forms of interaction within and between species appear to be based on ‘scrounger’ individuals or species exploiting a limited resource provided ‘producers’. A mathematical model is presented which shows whether or not scroungers are maintained in a group, depending on their frequency and the group size. Some of the predictions of the model were tested in captive flocks of house sparrows Passer domesticus L. Here the scroungers obtained most of their food (mealworms) by interaction… Expand
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A link between boldness, foraging efficiency and the choice of foraging tactics in small flocks of zebra finches is suggested, suggesting that birds that arrived later on the foraging grid foraged less efficiently when scrounging was prevented and used scounging to a greater extent when allowed. Expand
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TLDR
This study assessed the influence of natural variation in body condition on the differential use of social foraging tactics and their resulting payoffs in zebra finches and found the producer tactic was found to yield more consistent and predictable rewards across trials than the scrounger tactic. Expand
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TLDR
An extension of the marginal value theorem of patch exploitation that includes the producer-scrounger dynamics is developed and the results show that the producers of a patch often leave as scroungers join their food discoveries because the payoffs from leaving exceed those from staying. Expand
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