Processes at the margins of supraglacial debris cover: Quantifying dirty ice ablation and debris redistribution

  title={Processes at the margins of supraglacial debris cover: Quantifying dirty ice ablation and debris redistribution},
  author={Catriona L. Fyffe and Amy S. Woodget and Martin P. Kirkbride and Philip Deline and Matthew J. Westoby and Benjamin Brock},
  journal={Earth Surface Processes and Landforms},
  pages={2272 - 2290}
Current glacier ablation models have difficulty simulating the high‐melt transition zone between clean and debris‐covered ice. In this zone, thin debris cover is thought to increase ablation compared to clean ice, but often this cover is patchy rather than continuous. There is a need to understand ablation and debris dynamics in this transition zone to improve the accuracy of ablation models and the predictions of future debris cover extent. To quantify the ablation of partially debris‐covered… 
Numerical Simulation of Supraglacial Debris Mobility: Implications for Ablation and Landform Genesis
Supraglacial debris does not remain fixed atop ablating ice, but can move across the ice surface as supraglacial topography evolves. This active debris movement (distinct from passive movement due to
Estimation of ice ablation on a debris-covered glacier from vertical debris-temperature profiles
A supraglacial debris layer controls energy transfer to the ice surface and moderates ice ablation on debris-covered glaciers. Measurements of vertical temperature profiles within the debris
Controls on the relative melt rates of debris-covered glacier surfaces
Supraglacial debris covers 7% of mountain glacier area globally and generally reduces glacier surface melt. Enhanced energy absorption at ice cliffs and supraglacial ponds scattered across the debris
Modelling supraglacial debris-cover evolution from the single glacier to the regional scale: an application to High Mountain Asia
Abstract. Currently, about 12–13 % of High Mountain Asia's glacier area is debris-covered, altering its surface mass balance. However, in regional-scale modelling approaches, debris-covered glaciers
Modelling supraglacial debris-cover evolution from the single-glacier to the regional scale: an application to High Mountain Asia
Abstract. Currently, about 12 %–13 % of High Mountain Asia’s glacier area is debris-covered, which alters its surface mass balance. However, in regional-scale modelling approaches, debris-covered
Distributed Global Debris Thickness Estimates Reveal Debris Significantly Impacts Glacier Mass Balance
This work provides the first globally distributed debris thickness estimates using a novel approach combining sub‐debris melt and surface temperature inversion methods, and demonstrates the importance of accounting for debris in glacier modeling efforts.
Quantifying heterogeneous monsoonal melt on a debris-covered glacier in Nepal Himalaya using repeat uncrewed aerial system (UAS) photogrammetry
Abstract The ablation zones of debris-covered glaciers in Himalaya exhibit heterogeneous processes and melt patterns. Although sub-debris melt is measured at ablation stakes, the high variability of
Geomorphological evolution of a debris‐covered glacier surface
There exists a need to advance our understanding of debris‐covered glacier surfaces over relatively short timescales due to rapid, climatically induced areal expansion of debris cover at the global
Understanding Complex Debris-Covered Glaciers: Concepts, Issues, and Research Directions
Understanding the climate-glacier dynamics of debris-covered glaciers is notoriously difficult given a multitude of controlling factors and feedback mechanisms involving climate forcing, debris-load


Stability of supraglacial debris
Rock debris on the surface of ablating glaciers is not static, and is often transported across the ice surface as relief evolves during melt. This supraglacial debris transport has a strong influence
Modeling debris-covered glaciers: response to steady debris deposition
Abstract. Debris-covered glaciers are common in rapidly eroding alpine landscapes. When thicker than a few centimeters, surface debris suppresses melt rates. If continuous debris cover is present,
The formation of supraglacial debris covers by primary dispersal from transverse englacial debris bands
Glaciological controls on debris cover formation are investigated from the perspective of primary dispersal of supraglacial debris across a melting ice surface. This involves the migration of angled
Quantifying Debris Thickness of Debris‐Covered Glaciers in the Everest Region of Nepal Through Inversion of a Subdebris Melt Model
Debris‐covered glaciers are ubiquitous in the Himalaya, and supraglacial debris significantly alters how glaciers respond to climate forcing. Estimating debris thickness at the glacier scale,
Debris cover and surface melt at a temperate maritime alpine glacier: Franz Josef Glacier, New Zealand
Abstract Melt rates on glaciers are strongly influenced by the presence of supraglacial debris, which can either enhance or reduce ablation relative to bare ice. Most recently, Franz Josef Glacier
Formation, Meltout Processes and Landscape Alteration of High-Arctic Ice-Cored Moraines—Examples From Nordenskiold Land, Central Spitsbergen
The debris-covered ice-margins of three largely cold-based glaciers in central Spitsbergen were investigated to reconstruct their formation and degradation. Clast shapes indicate dominant englacial
Sub‐debris melt rates on southern inylchek glacier, central tian shan
Abstract. Melt rates of glacier surfaces are strongly influenced by the existence of a debris cover. Dependent on thickness and other physical parameters, the debris layer can enhance or reduce
Debris-Covered Glacier Energy Balance Model for Imja-Lhotse Shar Glacier in the Everest Region of Nepal
Abstract. Debris thickness plays an important role in regulating ablation rates on debris-covered glaciers as well as controlling the likely size and location of supraglacial lakes. Despite its
A distributed energy-balance melt model of an alpine debris-covered glacier
Distributed energy-balance melt models have rarely been applied to glaciers with extensive supraglacial debris cover. This paper describes the development of a distributed melt model and its
Modelling debris transport within glaciers by advection in a full-Stokes ice flow model
Abstract. Glaciers with extensive surface debris cover respond differently to climate forcing than those without supraglacial debris. In order to include debris-covered glaciers in projections of