Process and pattern in the biogeography of New Zealand – a global microcosm?

  title={Process and pattern in the biogeography of New Zealand – a global microcosm?},
  author={Robert M. McDowall},
  journal={Journal of Biogeography},
  • R. McDowall
  • Published 18 December 2007
  • Medicine, Chemistry
  • Journal of Biogeography
Aim  To describe New Zealand’s historical terrestrial biogeography and place this history in a wider Southern Hemisphere context. 
A Biogeographical Synthesis: 1. The Big Picture
The freshwater fish fauna reflects a series of events in New Zealand’s geological history, beginning with its origins in Gondwana, transoceanic dispersal, mostly from Australia, and derivations from
Diversification of Chionochloa (Poaceae) and biogeography of the New Zealand Southern Alps
The phylogeny of Chionochloa and other published phylogenies of New Zealand plant groups demonstrate that the higher degree of endemism in the north and south of the New Zealand South Island relative to a central endemist gap cannot be explained by Alpine Fault displacement.
Revenant clades in historical biogeography: the geology of New Zealand predisposes endemic clades to root age shifts
The potential for mass extinction events, such as the Zealandian marine incursion episode in the Oligocene, to skew the interpretation of the evolutionary history of clades of various sizes is assessed.
Out of the Bassian province: historical biogeography of the Australasian platycercine parrots (Aves, Psittaciformes)
Out of the Bassian province: historical biogeography of the Australasian platycercine parrots (Aves, Psittaciformes).
Biogeographical Synthesis: 2. More Local Issues and Patterns
At the more local level, patterns of distribution of the non-diadromous species in the fauna relate to a long series of events that relate to New Zealand’s geological and climatic history: beginning
ORIGINAL ARTICLE: A general dynamic theory of oceanic island biogeography
A general dynamic model (GDM) of oceanic island biogeography that aims to provide a general explanation of biodiversity patterns through describing the relationships between fundamental biogeographical processes – speciation, immigration, extinction – through time and in relation to island ontogeny is presented.
Austral lichenology: 1690–2008
This review summarises lichen work in the temperate Southern Hemisphere from an austral perspective and discusses biogeographical patterns, and the importance of lichens in nutrient cycling, habitat restoration, and monitoring of global change.
Evolution of New Zealand's terrestrial fauna: a review of molecular evidence
Molecular studies of terrestrial animals and plants in New Zealand indicate that many taxa arrived since isolation of the land, and that diversification in most groups is relatively recent.
A Conceptual Basis for Biogeography
There is now a strong consensus that most of the modern biota has dispersal origins, with, at most, just a few relictual Gondwanan taxa.
Multiple colonizations of a remote oceanic archipelago by one species: how common is long‐distance dispersal?
It is suggested that long-distance transoceanic dispersal, and the gene flow it can mediate, may be more common than is generally appreciated.


Historical biogeography of Indo‐western Pacific coral reef biota: is the Indonesian region a centre of origin?
To apply the modern theory of vicariant biogeography to the study of evolution of the coral reef fauna in the Indo‐western Pacific region.
Accumulating evidence for a dispersal biogeography of southern cool temperate freshwater fishes
No compelling evidence indicates that present distributions reflect a former broad Gondwana-based range of these fishes, but a role for dispersal in these fishes is consistent with increasingly common claims for disperseal in other taxa.
New Zealand and the new biogeography
Abstract New Zealand is both a source of biogeographic problems, and of biogeographic ideas. The efforts of biogeographers to grapple with the implications of the revolution in the earth sciences are
Molecular evidence for long‐distance dispersal in the New Zealand pteridophyte flora
Rejection of the null hypothesis for the majority of pairs implies that the extant New Zealand lineage has undergone long-distance dispersal either into or out of New Zealand, and the notion of a long isolation since geological separation can be dismissed for much of the pteridophyte flora.
Endemism, species selection and the origin and distribution of the vascular plant flora of New Zealand
Endemic and range disjunction patterns in the New Zealand mainland are not, in general, directly caused by Pliocene inundations or the faulting and associated horizontal displacement of terrain that has continued since the Miocene.
The biogeography of Gunnera L.: vicariance and dispersal
A cladogram was used to discuss the biogeography of Gunnera and subsequently compare this biogeographical pattern with the geological history of continents and the patterns reported for other Southern Hemisphere organisms.
Biogeographical and geological evidence for a smaller, completely‐enclosed Pacific Basin in the Late Cretaceous
Aim  To use biogeographical, palaeomagnetic, palaeosedimentary, and plate circuit data from Late Cretaceous regions in and around the Pacific to test the plate tectonic hypothesis of a pre‐Pacific
The trans‐Pacific zipper effect: disjunct sister taxa and matching geological outlines that link the Pacific margins
What appears to be a multi-era tangle of convoluted, trans-oceanic distributions on Panthalassa-based paleomaps is actually a relatively simple biogeographical pattern that is explainable by a single vicariant event: the opening and expansion of the Pacific.
A Miocene crocodilian from New Zealand
An incomplete indeterminate crocodilian angular from the Miocene Bannockburn Formation, Central Otago, South Island, New Zealand is described. The fossil (probably a new taxon) represents the first