Procaine impairs learning and memory consolidation in the honeybee.

@article{Mller2003ProcaineIL,
  title={Procaine impairs learning and memory consolidation in the honeybee.},
  author={Dirk M{\"u}ller and D Staffelt and Andr{\'e} Fiala and Randolf Menzel},
  journal={Brain research},
  year={2003},
  volume={977 1},
  pages={124-7}
}
In vertebrates local anaesthetics lead to various learning deficits, depending on the site and time of injection. In this study we show the effects of the local anaesthetic procaine on learning and memory in an invertebrate, the honeybee. Reversible blocking of neuronal processes leads to different memory deficits depending on the time window during which the local anaesthesia is in effect. 

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