Problems in the management of type III (severe) open fractures: a new classification of type III open fractures.

@article{Gustilo1984ProblemsIT,
  title={Problems in the management of type III (severe) open fractures: a new classification of type III open fractures.},
  author={Ramon B. Gustilo and R M Mendoza and D. N. Williams},
  journal={The Journal of trauma},
  year={1984},
  volume={24 8},
  pages={
          742-6
        }
}
Between 1976-1979, 87 Type III open fractures (in 75 patients) were treated at the Hennepin County Medical Center. Factors leading to increased morbidity in Type III fractures were: massive soft-tissue damage; compromised vascularity; severe wound contamination; and marked fracture instability. This study demonstrates, because of varied severity and prognosis, that the current designation of Type III open fracture is too inclusive. We recommend, therefore, that Type III open fractures be… 
Type III open tibial fractures in children
TLDR
Overall, with the exception of one type IIIB case requiring tibio-fibular synostosis and two type IIIC cases needing amputations, the cases should positive outcomes.
Management of Forearm Open Fractures
TLDR
Between 1986 and 1997, 28 forearm open fractures were treated at the Tamana Central Hospital and patients, except type III-C fractures, had good functional results.
The Management of Soft Tissue and Bone Loss in Type IIIB and IIIC Pediatric Open Tibia Fractures
TLDR
Pediatric type IIIB and IIIC tibia fractures are limb-threatening injuries that require dynamic thinking and management as the bone and soft-tissue injuries evolve, and a general algorithm is proposed to guide the treatment of these severe injuries.
Factors Associated with Infection Following Open Distal Radius Fractures
TLDR
It is hypothesized that contamination, rather than absolute wound size, is the best predictor of infection associated with open distal radius fractures and recommended that contamination be included as factor for prognosis in open distAL radius fractures.
Immediate primary skin closure in type-III A and B open fractures: results after a minimum of five years.
TLDR
Immediate skin closure when performed selectively with the above indications proved to be a safe procedure and six patients developed nonunion requiring further surgery, one of whom declined additional measures to treat an established infected nonunion.
Treatment of Isolated Type I Open Fractures: Is Emergent Operative Debridement Necessary?
TLDR
A prospective randomized study of the treatment of Type I open fractures is needed to determine whether immediate operative debridement is necessary to prevent infection, and may not be necessary in the isolated, low-energy Type Iopen fracture with stable fracture patterns.
Open fractures of the calcaneus: soft-tissue injury determines outcome.
TLDR
Open calcaneal fractures have a high propensity for deep infection despite the use of an aggressive treatment protocol to prevent it and should be avoided in this subgroup because of the high rates of osteomyelitis and subsequent amputation.
Acute Compartment Syndrome in Type IIIB Open Tibial Shaft Fractures Using a 2-Stage Orthoplastic Approach
TLDR
Patients with type IIIB open tibial shaft fractures treated with colloid resuscitation and a 2-stage orthoplastic protocol, which includes early “3-vessel view” exposure and debridement, do not appear to develop ACS.
A Staged Treatment Plan for the Management of Type II and Type IIIA Open Calcaneus Fractures
TLDR
In this series, a staged treatment strategy consisting of urgent débridement, provisional internal stabilization, and late definitive reconstruction offers a protocol that may reduce infections associated with open calcaneal fractures.
Treatment of type II and type III open tibia fractures in children.
TLDR
Open tibia fractures in children differ from similar fractures in adults in the following ways: soft tissues have excellent healing capacity, devitalized bone that is not contaminated or exposed can be saved and will become incorporated, and external fixation can be maintained until the fracture has healed.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...