Problems in Participant Observation

@article{Schwartz1955ProblemsIP,
  title={Problems in Participant Observation},
  author={Morris S. Schwartz and Charlotte Green Schwartz},
  journal={American Journal of Sociology},
  year={1955},
  volume={60},
  pages={343 - 353}
}
Participant observation is a process of registering, interpreting, and recording. The process and the kinds of data are influenced by continuing observed-observer transactions. The role of the observer may be passive or active. In either case effective involvement with the observed develops inevitably and may range from sympathetic identification to projective distortion. The form it takes is a function primarily of the observer's experience, awareness, and personality. Anxiety and bias are… 

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References

1951); Hadley Cantril, The "Why" of Man's Experience (New York: Macmillan Co., 1950)

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