Problem-oriented training promotes spontaneous analogical transfer: Memory-oriented training promotes memory for training

@article{Needham1991ProblemorientedTP,
  title={Problem-oriented training promotes spontaneous analogical transfer: Memory-oriented training promotes memory for training},
  author={Douglas R. Needham and Ian Maynard Begg},
  journal={Memory \& Cognition},
  year={1991},
  volume={19},
  pages={543-557}
}
Spontaneous analogical transfer is the use of information from one problem to solve another problem, without an explicit hint to use the previous information. The results of five experiments were that if subjects tried to solve a training problem before hearing its solution, or tried to explain a training story’s solution before hearing the correct explanation, spontaneous transfer was more likely than it was if subjects had studied the same training passage for memory before hearing its… 
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When people encounter a novel problem, they might be reminded of a problem they solved previously, retrieve its solution, and use it, possibly with some adaptation, to solve the novel problem. This
Learning from mistakes: Inducing analogous solution failures to a source problem produces later successes in analogical transfer
In 4 experiments we investigated the use of analogical problem solving to facilitate the solution to a problem that usually results in persistent solution failures without hints. The results of
The effect of conceptual and contextual familiarity on transfer performance
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This study investigated the effect of a commonsense analogy and context familiarity for transfer of physiological concepts in first year psychology students, finding common analogies aid conceptual understanding necessary for transfer.
Explaining away the negative effects of evaluation on analogical transfer: The perils of premature evaluation
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It appears that evaluation leads to encoding of extraneous material that interferes with access to solution-critical analogous information and the source of difficulty in analogical transfer may reside not only in retrieval and mapping but also in the initial encoding of problems.
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