Problem Solving, Planning, and Innovation. Part II. Speculations for Theory and Practice

@inproceedings{Ven1980ProblemSP,
  title={Problem Solving, Planning, and Innovation. Part II. Speculations for Theory and Practice},
  author={Andrew H. Van de Ven},
  year={1980}
}
This paper argues that the Program Planning Model (PPM) provides a normative strategy of collective action for coping with complex problems. The argument is based on seven propositions which explain how the PPM guides complex problem solving in turbulent settings and avoids several basic limitations of alternative models of collfctive problem solving and decision making. The propositions represent new insights and speculative impressions that developed while conducting and reflecting on the… CONTINUE READING