Problem-Based Learning is Compatible with Human Cognitive Architecture: Commentary on Kirschner, Sweller, and Clark (2006)

  title={Problem-Based Learning is Compatible with Human Cognitive Architecture: Commentary on Kirschner, Sweller, and Clark (2006)},
  author={Henk G. Schmidt and Sofie M. M. Loyens and Tamara van Gog and Fred Paas},
  journal={Educational Psychologist},
  pages={91 - 97}
Kirschner, Sweller, and Clark (2006) suggest that unguided or minimally guided instructional approaches are less effective and efficient for novices than guided instructional approaches because they ignore the structures that constitute human cognitive architecture. While we concur with the authors on this point, we do not agree to their equation of problem-based learning with minimally guided instruction. In this commentary, we argue that problem-based learning is an instructional approach… 
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Cognitive Load During Problem Solving: Effects on Learning
  • J. Sweller
  • Psychology, Computer Science
    Cogn. Sci.
  • 1988
It is suggested that a major reason for the ineffectiveness of problem solving as a learning device, is that the cognitive processes required by the two activities overlap insufficiently, and that conventional problem solving in the form of means-ends analysis requires a relatively large amount of cognitive processing capacity which is consequently unavailable for schema acquisition.
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  • H. Schmidt
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Medical education
  • 1993
It is argued that problem‐based learning, above all, promotes the activation of prior knowledge and its elaboration and that the processing of new information is indeed facilitated by discussion of a relevant problem.
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The psychological basis of problem‐based learning: a review of the evidence
  • G. Norman, H. Schmidt
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Academic medicine : journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
  • 1992
There is no evidence that PBL curricula result in any improvement in general, content-free problem-solving skills, and there are several potential advantages for students' learning claimed for problem-based learning.