Probiotics in pregnancy and maternal outcomes: a systematic review

@article{Lindsay2013ProbioticsIP,
  title={Probiotics in pregnancy and maternal outcomes: a systematic review},
  author={Karen L. Lindsay and Colin A Walsh and Lorraine Brennan and Fionnuala M Mcauliffe},
  journal={The Journal of Maternal-Fetal \& Neonatal Medicine},
  year={2013},
  volume={26},
  pages={772 - 778}
}
Abstract Objectives: To systematically review the literature on the use of probiotics in pregnancy and their impact on maternal outcomes. Methods: Online databases were searched in April 2012 using the following terms to identify eligible studies: “probiotics”, “pregnancy”, “maternal outcomes” and “metabolism”. Primary outcomes of selected studies were maternal fasting glucose during pregnancy and rates of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Secondary outcomes were rates of pre-eclampsia… 

Probiotic treatment for women with gestational diabetes to improve maternal and infant health and well-being.

TLDR
The safety and effectiveness of probiotics in treating women with GDM on maternal and infant outcomes is evaluated and it is uncertain if probiotics have any effect, compared with placebo, on the risk of large-for-gestational-age babies or infant hypoglycaemia.

Through the Microbial Looking Glass: Premature Labor, Preeclampsia, and Gestational Diabetes A Scoping Review

TLDR
The relationships between the microbiome and the risk for PEC, PTB, and GDM are not fully elucidated, although probiotic interventions seem beneficial in decreasing PEC and G DM risk.

Probiotics for preventing gestational diabetes.

TLDR
One trial has shown a reduction in the rate of GDM when women are randomised to probiotics early in pregnancy but more uncertain evidence of any effect on miscarriage/IUFD/stillbirth/ stillbirth/neonatal death is uncertain.

Probiotics for preventing gestational diabetes.

TLDR
It is uncertain if probiotics have any effect on the risk of GDM compared to placebo, and the CIs for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy also indicated probiotics may have no effect, but the evidence was low certainty due to substantial heterogeneity and wide CIs that included both appreciable benefit and appreciable harm.

The impact of probiotic supplementation on metabolic health in healthy women of reproductive age: a systematic review.

TLDR
No conclusive evidence that probiotic capsule supplementation elicited positive effects in healthy, non-pregnant women of reproductive age was found, highlighting the need for further research to investigate the role that probiotics play during the pre-conception period, on female metabolic and immune health.

The Effect of Probiotics or Synbiotics on the Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnant Women with Gestational Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

TLDR
Probiotic or synbiotic supplements are not associated with significant effects on pregnancy outcomes in GDM, but due to the limited number of studies in this regard and heterogeneity between studies, future high-quality RCTs are recommended.

Effects of probiotics (Vivomixx®) in obese pregnant women and their newborn: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

TLDR
Investigating whether daily probiotic supplements in obese women during pregnancy can limit gestational weight gain, improve glucose homeostasis and thereby improve maternal, fetal and infant health outcomes to find alterations in the metabolic profiles, microbiota and possibly pregnancy outcomes.

Multistrain Probiotic increase the Gut Microbiota Diversity in Obese Pregnant Women Results from a Randomized, Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Study

TLDR
Multistrain probiotic can modulate the gut microbiota in obese women during pregnancy and shows an overall increase in α-diversity over time in the probiotic group only.

Correlation between bacterial vaginosis and adverse obstetric outcomes in Brazilian women

TLDR
BV was found to be very frequent among Brazilian pregnant women in the third trimester and correlated to unfortunate pregnancy outcomes, and regular screening of pregnant women may allow for early treatment and prevention of some obstetric complications.
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 48 REFERENCES

Pregnancy outcome after exposure to the probiotic Lactobacillus in early pregnancy

  • J. E. LeeJ. Han G. Koren
  • Medicine
    Journal of obstetrics and gynaecology : the journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
  • 2012
TLDR
No association was identified between ingestion of Lactobacillus in early pregnancy for a limited period of time and adverse pregnancy outcomes, however, rare pregnancy outcomes may have been missed due to the limited sample size included in the study.

Impact of maternal supplementation with probiotics during pregnancy on atopic eczema in childhood – a meta-analysis

TLDR
The meta-analysis of seven randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials shows that the administration of lactobacilli during pregnancy prevents atopic eczema in children aged from 2 to 7 years, and a mixture of various bacterial strains does not affect the development of atopic Eczema, independent of whether they contain lactOBacilli or not.

Effect of Prepregnancy Maternal Overweight and Obesity on Pregnancy Outcome

TLDR
A population-based study on a cohort of all Danish women giving birth to a singleton from 2004 through June 30, 2010 shows a significant increased risk of a wide variety of pregnancy, birth, and neonatal complications in overweight, obese, and severely obese women.

Intake of probiotic food and risk of preeclampsia in primiparous women: the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

TLDR
It is suggested that regular consumption of milk-based probiotics could be associated with lower risk of preeclampsia in primiparous women.

Effects of daily consumption of probiotic yoghurt on inflammatory factors in pregnant women: a randomized controlled trial.

Previous studies have shown that inflammatory factors increases in pregnancy and is associated with several complications of pregnancy. The aim of this study was to assess effects of daily

Impact of maternal probiotic-supplemented dietary counselling on pregnancy outcome and prenatal and postnatal growth: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study

TLDR
Probiotic-supplemented perinatal dietary counselling could be a safe and cost-effective tool in addressing the metabolic epidemic and is of significance for public health in demonstrating that this risk is modifiable.

Effect of daily consumption of probiotic yoghurt on lipid profiles in pregnant women: a randomized controlled clinical trial

  • Z. AsemiM. Samimi Ahmad Esmaillzadeh
  • Medicine
    The journal of maternal-fetal & neonatal medicine : the official journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians
  • 2012
Background: Due to enhanced fat storage primarily during the mid-pregnancy period, pregnancy is associated with elevated levels of lipid profiles. To our knowledge, no reports are available

Plasma C-reactive protein in early pregnancy and preterm delivery.

TLDR
It is suggested that very high CRP levels in early pregnancy are associated with preterm delivery.

Are probiotics safe for use during pregnancy and lactation?

TLDR
Current data suggest that probiotic supplementation is rarely systemically absorbed when used by healthy individuals, and Saccharomyces species use in pregnancy did not report an increase in adverse fetal outcomes.