Probe for the measurement of cell surface pH in vivo and ex vivo.

@article{Anderson2016ProbeFT,
  title={Probe for the measurement of cell surface pH in vivo and ex vivo.},
  author={Michael C Anderson and Anna Moshnikova and Donald M. Engelman and Yana K. Reshetnyak and Oleg A. Andreev},
  journal={Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America},
  year={2016},
  volume={113 29},
  pages={8177-81}
}
We have developed a way to measure cell surface pH by positioning a pH-sensitive fluorescent dye, seminaphtharhodafluor (SNARF), conjugated to the pH low insertion peptide (pHLIP). It has been observed that many diseased tissues are acidic and that tumors are especially so. A combination of effects acidifies tumor cell interiors, and cells pump out lactic acid and protons to maintain intracellular pH, acidifying the extracellular space. Overexpression of carbonic anhydrases on cell surfaces… CONTINUE READING
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