Probability of second law violations in shearing steady states.

@article{Evans1993ProbabilityOS,
  title={Probability of second law violations in shearing steady states.},
  author={Evans and Cohen and Morriss},
  journal={Physical review letters},
  year={1993},
  volume={71 15},
  pages={
          2401-2404
        }
}
We propose a new definition of natural invariant measure for trajectory segments of finite duration for a many-particle system. On this basis we give an expression for the probability of fluctuations in the shear stress of a fluid in a nonequilibrium steady state far from equilibrium. In particular we obtain a formula for the ratio that, for a finite time, the shear stress reverse sign, violating the second law of thermodynamics. Computer simulations support this formula. 

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