Probabilistic risk assessment of reproductive effects of polychlorinated biphenyls on bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the Southeast United States coast

  title={Probabilistic risk assessment of reproductive effects of polychlorinated biphenyls on bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the Southeast United States coast},
  author={Lori H. Schwacke and Eberhard O. Voit and Larry J. Hansen and Randall S. Wells and Greg B Mitchum and Aleta A. Hohn and Patricia A Fair},
  journal={Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry},
High levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been reported in the tissues of some species of marine mammals. The high concentrations are of concern because a growing body of experimental evidence links PCBs to deleterious effects on reproduction, endocrine homeostasis, and immune system function. Much of the recent research has focused on determining the exposure of marine mammal populations to PCBs, but very little effort has been devoted to the actual risk assessments that are needed… 
Individual-Based Model Framework to Assess Population Consequences of Polychlorinated Biphenyl Exposure in Bottlenose Dolphins
An individual-based model framework is developed that simulates the accumulation of PCBs in the population and modifies first-year calf survival based on maternal blubber PCB levels, but predictions are limited both by model naivety and parameter uncertainty.
Linking organochlorine contaminants with demographic parameters in free-ranging common bottlenose dolphins from the northern Adriatic Sea.
Organochlorine Contaminants and Reproductive Implication in Cetaceans: A Case Study of the Common Dolphin
Modeling Population-Level Consequences of Polychlorinated Biphenyl Exposure in East Greenland Polar Bears
It was found that the quantitative impact of PCB-induced reproductive failure on population growth rate depended largely on the actual type of reproductive failure involved, and it could not be excluded that PCB exposure contributes to higher cub mortality.
Growth and reproductive effects from dietary exposure to Aroclor 1268 in mink (Neovison vison), a surrogate model for marine mammals
American mink were chosen as a surrogate model for cetaceans to develop marine mammalian PCB toxicity benchmarks because of similarities in diet and taxonomic class, and a characteristic sensitivity to PCBs provides a potential safety factor when using mink toxicology data for cross-species extrapolations.
Juvenile harbor porpoises in the UK are exposed to a more neurotoxic mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls than adults.
Long-Term Consequences of High Polychlorinated Biphenyl Exposure: Projected Decline of Delphinid Populations in a Hotspot for Chemical Pollution.
A risk of severe decline in population size is projected for the three populations in the next 100 years, especially in SE Brazil, varying between 67 and 99% in an individual-based model.
Partitioning of persistent organic pollutants between blubber and blood of wild bottlenose dolphins: implications for biomonitoring and health.
Blubber may be used to estimate blood concentrations and vice versa, and the mobilization of lipid from blubber and concomitant increase in contaminants in blood suggests cetaceans with reduced blubbers may be at greater risk for contaminant-associated health effects.
Assessing the Effect of Persistent Organic Pollutants on Reproductive Activity in Common Dolphins and Harbour Porpoises
In harbour porpoises, high POP burdens tended to be associated with lower ovarian scar number, possibly indicating that high contaminant levels were inhibiting ovulation, or some females may go through a number of infertile ovulations prior to a successful pregnancy, birth, and survival of their children during early lactation.
Killer whales (Orcinus orca) face protracted health risks associated with lifetime exposure to PCBs.
Estimated PCB concentrations in killer whales responded slowly to changes in loadings to the environment as evidenced by slower accumulation and lower magnitude increases in PCB concentrations relative to prey, and a delayed decline that was particularly evident in adult males.


Toxicity Reference Values for the Toxic Effects of Polychlorinated Biphenyls to Aquatic Mammals
Threshold tissue residue concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents and TEQs were derived from the published results of semi-field or field toxicity studies conducted with seals, European otters and mink.
Reproductive toxicity of commercial PCB mixtures: LOAELs and NOAELs from animal studies.
This paper reviews the developmental/reproductive toxicity of commercial polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixtures in animals and reports on the "no-observable-adverse-effect levels" (NOAELs) and
Epidemiological analysis of persistent organochlorine contaminants in cetaceans.
  • T. ColbornM. Smolen
  • Environmental Science
    Reviews of environmental contamination and toxicology
  • 1996
Conservative approach to hypothesis that organochlorines introduced into the environment since the early 1940s could threaten the reproductive potential of baleen whales and other cetaceans reveals that some whale species are within the range of enzyme-induced TEQs at which effects have been associated with adverse health effects in other aquatic species.
Multigenerational study of the effects of consumption of PCB-contaminated carp from Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron, on mink. 1. Effects on mink reproduction, kit growth and survival, and selected biological parameters.
Plasma and liver PCB concentrations of the adult and kit mink were, in general, directly related to the dietary concentration of PCBs and the duration and time of exposure, which had detrimental effects on survival of subsequent generations of mink conceived months after the parents were placed on "clean" feed.
Levels of organochlorine chemicals in tissues of beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from the St. Lawrence Estuary, Québec, Canada
Findings suggest that OC contamination is a major factor in the non-recovery of the St. Lawrence beluga population over the last decades.
Organochlorines in Stranded Pilot Whales (Globicephala melaena) from the Coast of Massachusetts
Tissue samples from pilot whales that stranded in 1986 and 1990 along the Massachusetts coast offered an opportunity for the collection of tissues for biomonitoring of contaminant exposure in cetaceans, as well as for specimen archiving, and Statistically significant differences were found between females and males for the concentrations of certain analytes.
Reproductive failure in common seals feeding on fish from polluted coastal waters
It is reported that reproductive failure in common seals from the Dutch Wadden Sea is related to feeding on fish from that polluted area, the first demonstration of a causal relationship between naturally occurring levels of pollutants and a physiological response in marine mammals.