Activation of the PPAR gamma 2 gene (PPARG2) improves the action of insulin and its lipid metabolism. We examined the association between Pro12Ala polymorphism of PPARG2, type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2), and peripheral insulin sensitivity in a population with a high intake of oleic acid. A cross-sectional, population-based study was undertaken in Pizarra, a small town in the province of Malaga in southern Spain. A total of 538 subjects, aged 18-65 y, were selected randomly from the municipal census. All subjects underwent a clinical, anthropometrical, and biochemical evaluation, including an oral glucose tolerance test and Pro12Ala polymorphism of PPARG2. Insulin resistance was measured by homeostasis model assessment. Those subjects with the Ala-12 allele had an odds ratio for impaired fasting glucose of 0.55, for impaired glucose tolerance of 0.59, and for DM2 of 0.30. The intake of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) contributed to the variance of the homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index (HOMA IR) (P = 0.04), with a 2-way interaction between the Ala-12 allele of PPARG2 and the intake of MUFA (P = 0.005). The results suggest the existence of an interaction between Pro12Ala polymorphism of PPARG2 and dietary MUFA, such that obese people with the Ala-12 allele have higher HOMA IR values, especially if their intake of MUFA is low.