Prion gene sequence variation within diverse groups of U.S. sheep, beef cattle, and deer

@article{Heaton2003PrionG,
  title={
Prion gene sequence variation within diverse groups of U.S. sheep, beef cattle, and deer
},
  author={Michael P. Heaton and Kreg A. Leymaster and Bradley A. Freking and D A Hawk and Timothy P. L. Smith and John W. Keele and Warren M. Snelling and James M Fox and Carol G. Chitko-McKown and William W. Laegreid},
  journal={Mammalian Genome},
  year={2003},
  volume={14},
  pages={765-777}
}
Prions are proteins that play a central role in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in a variety of mammals. Among the most notable prion disorders in ungulates are scrapie in sheep, bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cattle, and chronic wasting disease in deer. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the sheep prion gene (PRNP) have been correlated with susceptibility to natural scrapie in some populations. Similar correlations have not been reported in cattle or deer; however… Expand
Prion protein polymorphisms in white-tailed deer influence susceptibility to chronic wasting disease.
TLDR
Although the reduced susceptibility of deer with at least one copy of the Q95H or G96S allele is insufficient to serve as a genetic barrier, the presence of these alleles may modulate the impact of CWD on white-tailed deer populations. Expand
Prion protein gene (PrP) polymorphisms in healthy sheep in Turkey.
TLDR
Polymorphisms at the PrP locus were studied in 413 animals representing three native sheep breeds in Turkey and seven additional polymorphisms have been detected at codons G127S, G127V, H143R, G145S, Y172D, N174Y and Q189L. Expand
Molecular evolution of the sheep prion protein gene
  • J. Slate
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
  • 2005
TLDR
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Linkage disequilibrium across six prion gene regions spanning 20 kbp in U.S. sheep
TLDR
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Results suggest that deer populations with higher frequencies of haplotype C or diplotypes AC and BC might have a reduced risk for CWD infection – while populations with lower frequencies may have higher risk for infection. Expand
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TLDR
The large number of susceptible genotypes and the possibility of adult-to-adult transmission suggest that much of the white-tailed deer population may be at risk for disease following exposure to CWD, despite the association of specific genotypes with CWD noted here. Expand
A processed pseudogene contributes to apparent mule deer prion gene heterogeneity.
Pathogenesis and transmission of the prion disorders (transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, TSEs) are mediated by a modified isoform of the prion protein (PrP). Prion protein gene (PRNP) allelesExpand
Somatic cell mutations in cerebral tissue of cattle affected by bovine spongiform encephalopathy.
TLDR
Interestingly one of the mutations found in the BSE positive animals (F209S) corresponds to a mutant that causes a familiar form of prion disease in humans (F198S), which can be explained with the presence of somatic mutations modifying the PRNP gene in single brain cells. Expand
Prevalence of the prion protein gene E211K variant in U.S. cattle
TLDR
A high-throughput matrix-associated laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry assay for scoring the Prnp E211K variant and its use to determine an upper limit for the K211 allele frequency in U.S. cattle found the upper bounds for prevalence was estimated to be extremely low. Expand
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References

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TLDR
Modulation of disease susceptibility in these Texel sheep by at least five different PrP allelic variants, with the PrPVRQ and PrPARR alleles acting in a dominant, but opposite fashion over the PrPARQ andPrPARH alleles. Expand
Frequencies of PrP gene variants in healthy cattle and cattle with BSE in Scotland
TLDR
Analysis of 370 cattle in Scotland revealed no difference between the frequencies of these PrP genotypes in healthy cattle and cattle with BSE. Expand
Complete genomic sequence and analysis of the prion protein gene region from three mammalian species.
TLDR
Ten(5) bp of DNA from clones containing human, sheep, and mouse PrP genes isolated in cosmids or lambda phage is sequenced and sequences in noncoding DNA that are conserved between the three species and may represent biologically functional sites are identified. Expand
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TLDR
The association between scrapie and polymorphism of the prion protein (PrP) gene was studied in the Icelandic sheep breed and the VRQ variant was found to be highly statistically associated with scrapie, whereas the allelic variant, AHQ, was never found in scrapie-affected animals. Expand
PrP polymorphisms associated with natural scrapie discovered by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis.
TLDR
A correlation indicates that the 136 Val allele may modulate development of the disease, implying a pivotal role for PrP molecules in natural scrapie, as has been observed for experimental scrapie and human prion diseases. Expand
Analysis of 27 mammalian and 9 avian PrPs reveals high conservation of flexible regions of the prion protein.
TLDR
The evolutionary conservation of the prion protein is analyzed and the suggestion that the repeat elements might have expanded differently within the various classes of vertebrates is supported. Expand
Comparative Analysis of the Prion Protein Open Reading Frame Nucleotide Sequences of Two Wild Ruminants, the Moufflon and Golden Takin
TLDR
The similarities between the PrP genes of these two animals and sheep imply that the species barriers between these animals are small or non-existent and could be used to establish transgenic mice with higher susceptibility to prion-related diseases. Expand
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
The structure of the sheep prion protein (PrP) gene is determined, implying that homozygosity for Q-171 codons is necessary but not sufficient for the development of natural scrapie, echo reports of recessive manifestation, and parallel over-representation of PRNP codon 129 homozygotes in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease of humans. Expand
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