Print referencing: an emergent literacy enhancement strategy and its clinical applications.

  title={Print referencing: an emergent literacy enhancement strategy and its clinical applications.},
  author={Laura M. Justice and Helen K. Ezell},
  journal={Language, speech, and hearing services in schools},
  volume={35 2},
  • L. Justice, H. Ezell
  • Published 1 April 2004
  • Psychology
  • Language, speech, and hearing services in schools
Print referencing is an evidence-based strategy that may be used by speech-language pathologists and other early childhood specialists to enhance the emergent literacy skills of young children. Print referencing is a strategy implemented within the context of adult-child shared storybook reading interactions, and specifically refers to the use of verbal and nonverbal cues to encourage children's attention to and interactions with print. Print referencing increases the metalinguistic focus of… 
Increasing print awareness in preschoolers with language impairment using non-evocative print referencing.
It is suggested that children with language impairment may benefit from simple non-evocative, explicit referencing strategies that can be easily incorporated into the context of storybook reading during language therapy, thus providing speech-language pathologists with an additional tool for facilitating children's literacy skills.
Print referencing during e-storybook reading on a SMART board for kindergartners to promote early literacy skills
This study examined the effects of a classroom-focused intervention on different domains of early literacy. The intervention consisted of shared e-book reading combined with a print referencing
Critical Review: Does print referencing during shared storybook reading improve pre-literacy skills in preschoolers?
This critical review examines the evidence regarding the effects of print referencing during shared storybook reading on pre-literacy skills in preschool children. A literature search was completed
A shared reading intervention with parents to enhance young children's early literacy skills
A pragmatic randomised controlled trial was used to investigate the effects of two forms of shared reading on children's language and literacy skills. Parents of 80 children in the preparatory year
The deconstruction and understanding of pre-literacy development and reading acquisition
ABSTRACT Many South African children struggle in acquiring literacy and reading skills. It seems as if caregivers may be missing an important aspect in guiding children’s emergent reading
Fostering Preschoolers' Emergent Literacy: Recommendations for Enhanced Literacy Experiences and Collaborative Instruction
Emergent literacy skills involve both the code-related and oral language skills that serve as the foundation for successful reading and writing development. Code-related skills have been found to
Relations among home literacy environment, child characteristics and print knowledge for preschool children with language impairment
To contribute to the modest body of work examining the home literacy environment (HLE) and emergent literacy outcomes for children with disabilities, this study addressed two aims: (a) to determine
Facilitating emergent literacy: efficacy of a model that partners speech-language pathologists and educators.
It is suggested that professional development provided by a speech-language pathologist can yield short-term changes in the facilitation of emergent literacy skills in early childhood settings.
Prekindergarten teachers' verbal references to print during classroom-based, large-group shared reading.
Prekindergarten teachers naturally reference print during classroom shared reading and if verbal print references occur at similar rates across different types of books, and print-salient books appear to offer a natural context for discussions about print.
Facilitating Emergent Literacy Skills in Children with Hearing Loss
Building emergent literacy skills in children with hearing loss is contingent upon parents and professionals collaborating to develop specific literacy-based activities that can be incorporated into children's existing speech and language programmes and daily routines.


Development of print awareness in language-disordered preschoolers.
General language ability was correlated with print awareness, but knowledge of specific oral lexemes was not necessary for accurate print responses, and parent questionnaire data suggested that group differences did not result from differential prior experience with the print items.
Use of storybook reading to increase print awareness in at-risk children.
This study evaluated the impact of participation in book-reading sessions with a print focus on print awareness in preschool children from low- income households. A book-reading intervention was
Few models appropriately or adequately describe the literacy development experiences of children with atypical communication development, such as those with language impairment or severe
A Sequential Analysis of Children's Responsiveness to Parental Print References During Shared Book-Reading Interactions
Adults reading to preschool children have been encouraged to use print references (e.g., questions and comments about print) to stimulate children's interactions with written language. This study
Enhancing the emergent literacy skills of pre-schoolers with communication disorders: a pilot investigation
The purpose of this pilot investigation was to examine the efficacy of a parent-child book-reading programme designed to enhance the early literacy skills of pre-schoolers with communication
Young Children's Concepts about Print and Reading: Toward a Model of Word Reading Acquisition.
THE AUTHORS tested theoretical models of the development of print concepts and word reading. Eighteen measures of print concepts and word reading were obtained from 81 children three to seven years
Parent Scaffolding in Children's Oral Reading
Parent coaching strategies during shared book reading were analysed according to the principles of scaffolding in a sample of 46 parent-child dyads during the latter half of grade one. The ways that
Written Language Awareness in Preschool Children from Low-Income Households
This study examined written language awareness in preschool children from low-income households. A total of 38 preschool children (mean age = 53 months) participated. All children resided in
A prospective study of the relationship between specific language impairment, phonological disorders and reading retardation.
  • D. Bishop, C. Adams
  • Psychology
    Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines
  • 1990
Language and literacy skills were assessed in 83 8 1/2-year olds whose language development had been impaired at 4 years of age, and there were only weak links between expressive phonological disorders and later ability to read either meaningful text or non-words.
Increasing the Print Focus of Adult-Child Shared Book Reading Through Observational Learning
An instructional strategy for increasing adults’ verbal and nonverbal references to print while reading to typically developing 4-year-old children was evaluated. Also investigated were the effects...