Principles of blood irradiation, dose validation, and quality control

  title={Principles of blood irradiation, dose validation, and quality control},
  author={Gary Moroff and Susan F. Leitman and N L Luban},
he use of irradiated blood components to prevent graft-versus-host disease in susceptible patients has increased dramatically in the past sevT eral years. Irradiation eliminates the proliferative capacity of lymphocytes present in red cell, platelet, and freshly collected plasma component^.'-^ After penetrating blood components, the photons delivered by a radiation beam cause the formation of electrically charged particles or secondary electrons. These electrons damage the DNA of lymphocytes… 

[Evaluation of absorbed dose-distribution in the X-ray or gamma-irradiator for blood products].

Using blood-compatible materials, a careful dose calibration study should be employed in which the absorbed dose of 15 Gy is obtained at the point where the lowest dose could be expected, which may lead to substantial underexposure of the blood products.

Irradiation of Blood Products

Prevention of Transfusion-Associated Graft-versus-Host Disease by Irradiation: Technical Aspect of a New Ferrous Sulphate Dosimetric System

A dosimetric system based on the standard Fricke Xylenol Gel (FXG) dosimeter and an appropriate phantom is proposed and a linear response for absorbed doses up to 54 Gy was obtained with this system.

The in vitro quality of X‐irradiated platelet components in PAS‐E is equivalent to gamma‐irradiated components

In vitro quality of platelet components (pooled and apheresis) following X‐ or gamma‐irradiation is examined following gamma irradiation to inactivate lymphocytes.

The effect of gamma radiation on the lipid profile of irradiated red blood cells

Although gamma irradiation is the main agent for the prevention of TA-GVHD, a better understanding of the physical and biochemical properties of erythrocytes are necessary to better assess their viability, and to be able to issue more secure recommendations on the shelf life of blood bags, and the safe use of the irradiated red cells therein.

Dosimetry of gamma chamber blood irradiator using PAGAT gel dosimeter and Monte Carlo simulations

PAGAT gel dosimetry is a reliable method for dosimetric of the blood irradiator and is capable of 3D dose calculation, according to the results obtained in this study.



Effect of gamma irradiation of red blood cell units on T-cell inactivation as assessed by limiting dilution analysis: implications for preventing transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease.

Using a sensitive in vitro assay for T-cell proliferation, it is found that a gamma irradiation dose of 2,500 cGy may be required to completely inactivate T cells in RBC units.

Characteristics of red cells irradiated and subsequently frozen for long‐term storage

Red cells can be irradiated, stored at 4 degrees C for 6 days, and subsequently frozen with no increase in detectable damage as compared to controls that were not irradiated.

Viability of platelets following storage in the irradiated state. A pair‐controlled study

It is concluded that irradiated platelet concentrates with up to 30 Gy has no effect on their in vivo recovery or survival, and that irradiation administered before storage of platelets does not interfere with their clinical efficacy.

Prevention of transfusion‐associated graft‐versus‐host disease: selection of an adequate dose of gamma radiation

A nominal dose of 3000 cGy (actual dose delivered, 2898 cGy) is the appropriate amount of gamma radiation needed to eliminate T‐ lymphocyte‐mediated graft‐versus‐host disease.

Effective ultraviolet irradiation of platelet concentrates in teflon bags

It is suggested that platelets can be effectively irradiated with UVB light in a closed system, however, numerous variables, including container material, volume and composition of contents, steady exposure versus agitation, and exact UV wavelength, must be considered.

Practical dosimetric aspects of blood and blood product irradiation

A lucite cylinder was used to provide the delivery of a homogeneous irradiation dose to blood products of different volumes by allowing rotation of the product.

Ultraviolet irradiation in transplantation biology. Manipulation of immunity and immunogenicity.

  • H. Deeg
  • Biology, Medicine
  • 1988
Preliminary data suggest that UVB and UVC irradiation can abolish proliferative and stimulatory ability as well as accessory/antigen-presenting ability of leukocytes in vitro and suppress immunity and reduce immunogenicity in vivo.

Pretransfusion blood irradiation: clinical rationale and dosimetric considerations.

Results of dose rate measurements on commercially available irradiators indicate differences of +5% to -13% with manufacturer-supplied calibrations and variations in the relative dose rate over the irradiation volume from 70% to 180%.

Transfusion‐associated graft‐versus‐host disease: report of an occurrence following the administration of irradiated blood

The irradiation of cellular blood components at a nominal dose of 15 Gy prior to their transfusion to heavily immunosuppressed patients may be insufficient to prevent TA‐GVHD.