Principles, techniques, and limitations of near infrared spectroscopy.

  title={Principles, techniques, and limitations of near infrared spectroscopy.},
  author={Marco Ferrari and Leonardo Mottola and Valentina Quaresima},
  journal={Canadian journal of applied physiology = Revue canadienne de physiologie appliquee},
  volume={29 4},
In the last decade the study of the human brain and muscle energetics underwent a radical change, thanks to the progressive introduction of noninvasive techniques, including near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy (NIRS). This review summarizes the most recent literature about the principles, techniques, advantages, limitations, and applications of NIRS in exercise physiology and neuroscience. The main NIRS instrumentations and measurable parameters will be reported. NIR light (700-1000 m) penetrates… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

In the absence of independent direct measures of path length and cerebral chromophore concentration as well as the influence of skull thickness on photon migration, the putative “absolute” concentrations of oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin produced by some cerebral oximeters should be viewed as unvalidated estimates.

Probing brain oxygenation with near infrared spectroscopy

The fundamentals of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) are reviewed. This technique allows to measure the oxygenation of the brain tissue. The particular problems involved in detecting regional brain

Probing Brain Oxygenation Wave-forms with Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS)

Results of an experiment are presented whose aim is to explore the relationship between respiration and cerebral oxygenation, and clearly show a periodic change of cerebral oxygenations with the same period as the breathing exercises.

Progress of near-infrared spectroscopy and topography for brain and muscle clinical applications.

This review reports on the progress of the NirS and NIRI instrumentation for brain and muscle clinical applications 30 years after the discovery of in vivo NIRS and summarizes the measurable parameters in relation to the different techniques.

Near-infrared spectroscopy/imaging for monitoring muscle oxygenation and oxidative metabolism in healthy and diseased humans.

This review honoring Jobsis highlights the progress that has been made in developing and adapting NIRS and NIR imaging (NIRI) technologies for evaluating skeletal muscle O(2) dynamics and oxidative energy metabolism.

4 Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

NIRS technology makes it possible to apply critical safety thresholds with regards to cerebral tissue saturation in order to avoid dangerously low levels with the primary goal being to reduce mortality rates and cognitive deficits due to cerebral hypoxemia.

Near Infrared Brain and Muscle Oximetry: From the Discovery to Current Applications

This review reports the status of the current commercial oximeters (including wireless instrumentation) and their main clinical and physiological applications and suggests that further technological advances are required before NIR spectroscopy oximetry can be adopted more widely under the “guidelines” of regulatory authorities.

The use of muscle near-infrared spectroscopy in sport, health and medical sciences: recent developments

Progress made for evaluating skeletal muscle oxygenation and oxidative energy metabolism in sport, health and clinical sciences is highlighted and advances in NIRS imaging and portability promise to transform how measurements of oxygen utilization are obtained in the future.

Review of early development of near-infrared spectroscopy and recent advancement of studies on muscle oxygenation and oxidative metabolism

Near-infrared spectroscopy has become an increasingly valuable tool to monitor tissue oxygenation (Toxy) in vivo and multiple source–detector pairs can be used to provide low-resolution imaging.



Non-invasive measurements of O2 availability in human skeletal muscle with near-infrared spectroscopy.

  • K. Sahlin
  • Medicine
    International journal of sports medicine
  • 1992
The availability of O2 in the human vastus lateralis muscle has been investigated with non-invasive near-infrared spectroscopy using a commercially available unit and the half-time of reoxygenation subsequent to exercise and/or ischemia may be a valuable parameter in sports medicine and in the evaluation of peripheral vascular disease.

Near-infrared oximetry of the brain

The contribution of NMR, NIRS and their combination to the functional assessment of human muscle.

The concomitant use of the above techniques is expected to provide a synergic functional picture of the human muscle that is complementary to the structural and ultrastructural microscopic approach.

Near-infrared spectroscopy for monitoring muscle oxygenation.

Near-infrared spectroscopy has demonstrated utility for monitoring changes in muscle oxygenation and blood flow during submaximal and maximal exercise and under pathophysiological conditions including cardiovascular disease and sepsis.

Evaluation of a Near-Infrared Spectrometer (NIRO 300) for the Detection of Intracranial Oxygenation Changes in the Adult Head

The NIRO 300 reflects changes in cerebral tissue oxygenation when TOI is calculated, with a high degree of sensitivity and specificity.

In vivo near-infrared spectroscopy.

  • P. Rolfe
  • Biology
    Annual review of biomedical engineering
  • 2000
Interrogation of tissue with light offers the potential for noninvasive chemical measurement, and penetration with near-infrared wavelengths (750-1000 nm) is greater than with visible light. Specific

Tissue oxygenation monitor using NIR spatially resolved spectroscopy

In the both measurements, TOI showed an excellent correlation with the data from blood gas analyzer and the TRS machine, which suggests the efficacy of the TOI data also in clinical use.

Regional difference of muscle oxygen saturation and blood volume during exercise determined by near infrared imaging device.

UNLABELLED Using a near infrared (NIR) imaging device, we tested the hypothesis that regional differences in oxygen status could be detected in the gastrocnemius muscle during exercise and recovery.

Human calf microvascular compliance measured by near-infrared spectroscopy.

A new method for the measurement in humans of the compliance of the microvascular superficial venous system of the lower limb by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is developed and it appears to be possible to assess the characteristics of the vasomotor response of the arteriolar system.