Priming and human memory systems.

  title={Priming and human memory systems.},
  author={Endel Tulving and Daniel L. Schacter},
  volume={247 4940},
Priming is a nonconscious form of human memory, which is concerned with perceptual identification of words and objects and which has only recently been recognized as separate from other forms of memory or memory systems. It is currently under intense experimental scrutiny. Evidence is converging for the proposition that priming is an expression of a perceptual representation system that operates at a pre-semantic level; it emerges early in development, and access to it lacks the kind of… 

Priming and Multiple Memory Systems: Perceptual Mechanisms of Implicit Memory

  • D. Schacter
  • Psychology
    Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
  • 1992
The hypothesis that priming effects on various tasks reflect the operation of a perceptual representation system (PRS) a class of cortically based subsystems that operate at a presemantic level and support non conscious expressions of memory.

Varieties of priming

Implicit memory and priming

Specificity of priming: a cognitive neuroscience perspective

Cognitive neuroscience analyses provide evidence for three types of specificity: stimulus, associative and response, and a theoretical perspective is suggested to help in guiding future research.

Intact Conceptual Priming in the Absence of Declarative Memory

The findings count against the notion that conceptual priming provides feelings of familiarity that can support accurate recognition judgments and suggest that priming is inaccessible to conscious awareness and does not influence declarative memory.

Intact perceptual memory in the absence of conscious memory.

The authors report the first demonstration, using matched tests, of fully intact perceptual memory (priming) in a profoundly amnesic patient (E.P.), despite at-chance recognition memory.

Conscious and Nonconscious Processing of Visual Object Identity

Priming as implicit memory Recognizing a perceptual stimulus improves with familiarity. This experience specific facilitation is termed priming.In a typical priming experiment, subjects are initially

Conscious and unconscious memory systems.

This work recounts the discovery of declarative and nondeclarative memory and then describes the nature of declARative memory, working memory, nondeClarativeMemory, and the relationship between memory systems.

Acquisition and transfer of word processing skill by an amnesic patient

It is demonstrated that an amnesic patient was able to acquire a considerable amount of declarative and procedural knowledge about a word processing task and subsequently use it independently in his home environment but was unable to reflect upon what he had learned or to produce the learned information to changed cues.

Implicit memory: intention and awareness revisited




A retrieval theory of priming in memory.

The retrieval theory is applied to priming phenomena and is shown to be capable of explaining the same empirical findings as spreading activation theories.

Priming of Old and New Knowledge in Amnesic Patients and Normal Subjects a

  • D. Schacter
  • Psychology, Biology
    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • 1985
The observed dissociations have led a number of investigators to propose that repetition-priming effects are mediated by a "memory system," "memory process," or "form of memory" that is relatively spared in amnesia and that can function independently of the damaged memory process or system that underlies conscious and explicit recolle~tion.

Measures of Memory

ionist Positions Abstractionist positions view implicit memory as reflecting modification of the state of abstract lexical, semantic, or procedural knowledge structures; byionist positions view

Amnesic Syndrome: Consolidation or Retrieval?

The present experiments show that amnesic patients can remember verbal material if they are tested with a method of partial information but such retention depends more on the method of retrieval than on the methods of acquisition.

Specificity and Generality of Enhanced Priming Effects for Self-Generated Study Items

In two experiments, we investigated the finding that priming effects in wordfragment completion are enhanced for self-generated study items. The first experiment showed that priming in word-fragment

Priming effects in word-fragment completion are independent of recognition memory.

Subjects saw a list of 96 words. They were tested 1 hr. later and 7 days later for (a) recognition of words encountered in the study list, and (b) their ability to complete graphemic word fragments