Primates in the Eocene

@article{Gingerich2012PrimatesIT,
  title={Primates in the Eocene},
  author={Philip D. Gingerich},
  journal={Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments},
  year={2012},
  volume={92},
  pages={649-663}
}
  • P. Gingerich
  • Published 8 September 2012
  • Biology
  • Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments
The mammalian order Primates made its first appearance in the fossil record during the Paleocene–Eocene thermal maximum (PETM), the global greenhouse warming event that marks the beginning of the Eocene. Two primate superfamilies, Tarsioidea and Adapoidea, dominate early and middle Eocene primate faunas. Warm climates enabled primates to thrive, and warming events within the Eocene facilitated cosmopolitan dispersal. Declining diversity at the end of the Eocene reflects environmental cooling… 
Life history of the most complete fossil primate skeleton: exploring growth models for Darwinius
TLDR
An alternative strepsirrhine model based on Eulemur and Varecia is presented, which shows an older age at death than previously suggested (1.05–1.14 years), while the range for adult weight is entirely below the range proposed previously.
Agerinia marandati sp. nov., a new early Eocene primate from the Iberian Peninsula, sheds new light on the evolution of the genus Agerinia
TLDR
The first detailed study of the euprimate material from the locality of Masia de l’Hereuet (early Eocene, NE Spain) shows several traits that were previously unknown for the genus Agerinia, such as the morphology of the upper and lower fourth deciduous premolars and the P2, and the unfused mandible.
Reply to comment on “Primates in the Eocene” by Gilbert and Maiolino (2015)
  • P. Gingerich
  • Biology
    Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments
  • 2015
TLDR
Gilbert and Maiolino (2015) question the recent characterisation of the morphology of pedal distal phalanges in Notharctus as ‘ambiguous,’ arguing, as they did before (Maiolino et al. 2012), that morphology shows NothArctus to have had a grooming claw on pedal digit II.
Plesiadapid Mammals from the Latest Paleocene of France Offer New Insights on the Evolution of Plesiadapis during the Paleocene-Eocene Transition
TLDR
There is some indication of morphological convergences between European and North American plesiadapids, which may be the result of similar environmental changes on both continents just before the Paleocene-Eocene boundary.
Pedal distal phalanges of the Eocene adapoids Europolemur and Darwinius compared to phalanges of Notharctus and other primates
TLDR
A detailed system of morphological types is established that differentiates pedal distal phalanges in adapoids, and it is shown that both species of Europolemur had a differentiated grooming claw.
Comment to “Primates in the Eocene” by Gingerich (2012)
TLDR
The analyses provided in Maiolino et al. (2012) demonstrate quite conclusively, both metrically and visually, that pedal distal phalanges bearing grooming claws are readily separated from other unguis forms on the basis of facet-shaft angle (FSA), volar feature length (VFL), and other distinctive measures.
Contextualising primate origins – an ecomorphological framework
TLDR
Current perspectives on the origin and early evolution of primates are reviewed, paying particular attention to their phylogenetic and environmental contextualisation, before attempting an up‐to‐date ecomorphological synthesis of primate origins.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 117 REFERENCES
Convergent evolution of anthropoid-like adaptations in Eocene adapiform primates
TLDR
As the largest non-anthropoid primate ever documented in Afro-Arabia, Afradapis provides surprising new evidence for prosimian diversity in the Eocene of Africa, and raises the possibility that ecological competition between adapiforms and higher primates might have played an important role during the early evolution of stem and crown Anthropoidea inAfro- Arabia.
The oldest Asian record of Anthropoidea
TLDR
The discovery of an early Eocene eosimiid anthropoid primate from India is reported that extends the Asian fossil record of anthropoids by 9–10 million years and confirms the anthropoid status of Eosimiidae, and suggests that crown haplorhines are the sister clade of Omomyoidea of the Eocene, not nested within an omomyoid clade.
Late middle Eocene epoch of Libya yields earliest known radiation of African anthropoids
TLDR
The discovery of the oldest known diverse assemblage of African anthropoids from the late middle Eocene Dur At-Talah escarpment in central Libya indicates either a much longer interval of anthropoid evolution in Africa than is currently documented in the fossil record or the nearly synchronous colonization of Africa by multiple anthropoid clades at some time during themiddle Eocene epoch.
Early Eocene Cantius torresi—oldest primate of modern aspect from North America
The oldest primates of modern aspect (primates of prosimian tarsiiform-lemuriform or higher grade) are known from Lower Eocene strata of Sparnacian age in Europe1,2, Bumbanian age in Asia3,4, and
Anthropoid versus strepsirhine status of the African Eocene primates Algeripithecus and Azibius: craniodental evidence
TLDR
New data support the idea that Algeripithecus and its sister genus Azibius are the earliest offshoots of an Afro–Arabian strepsirhine clade that embraces extant toothcombed primates and their fossil relatives and strongly challenge the role of Africa as the ancestral homeland for anthropoids.
Middle Eocene rodents from Peruvian Amazonia reveal the pattern and timing of caviomorph origins and biogeography
TLDR
The phylogenetic results reaffirm the African origin of South American rodents and support a trans-Atlantic dispersal of these mammals during Middle Eocene times, and further extends the gap between first appearances of rodents and primates in South America.
Primate postcrania from the late middle Eocene of Myanmar
TLDR
The humerus and ulna indicate that Pondaungia was capable of a wide variety of forelimb movements, with great mobility at the shoulder joint, and Morphology of the distal calcaneus indicates that the hind feet were mobile at the transverse tarsal joint.
The Primate Fossil Record
TLDR
This book discusses the earliest fossil primates and the evolution of prosimians, the origin and diversification of anthropoid primates, and the hominoid radiation in Asia.
Additional remains of Wadilemur elegans, a primitive stem galagid from the late Eocene of Egypt.
TLDR
Wadilemur's known dental and postcranial morphology provides additional support for the hypothesis that galagids and lorisids had diverged by the close of the middle Eocene, and, by bolstering the approximately 37 million-year-old calibration point for crown lorisiform origins provided by Saharagalago, indirect support for an ancient origin of crown Strepsirrhini and crown Primates.
Environment and evolution through the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum.
  • P. Gingerich
  • Geography, Environmental Science
    Trends in ecology & evolution
  • 2006
...
...