Primates--a natural heritage of conflict resolution.

  title={Primates--a natural heritage of conflict resolution.},
  author={De Waal and B M Frans},
The traditional notion of aggression as an antisocial instinct is being replaced by a framework that considers it a tool of competition and negotiation. When survival depends on mutual assistance, the expression of aggression is constrained by the need to maintain beneficial relationships. Moreover, evolution has produced ways of countering its disruptive consequences. For example, chimpanzees kiss and embrace after fights, and other nonhuman primates engage in similar “reconciliations… Expand
Why are bystanders friendly to recipients of aggression?
This work proposes a framework within which the function and occurrence of post-conflict affiliation directed from a bystander to the recipient of aggression is related to the quality of the relationships between the individuals involved and the patterns of behavior expressed. Expand
Conflict resolution following aggression in gregarious animals: a predictive framework
Knowledge of how animals manage their conflicts is critical for understanding the dynamics of social systems. During the last two decades research on gregarious animals, especially primates, hasExpand
When Violence Pays: A Cost-Benefit Analysis of Aggressive Behavior in Animals and Humans
Humans are a highly aggressive species in comparison to other animals, probably as a result of an unusually high benefit-to-cost ratio for intra-specific aggression. Expand
Evolutionary Ethics, Aggression, and Violence: Lessons from Primate Research
  • F. D. de Waal
  • Medicine
  • The Journal of law, medicine & ethics : a journal of the American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics
  • 2004
My research and that of others suggests a slightly different view, namely, that aggression between individuals is a last resort when conflict resolution fails and that aggression is now generally taken to be an option rather than a drive. Expand
Ancestral Hierarchy and Conflict
  • C. Boehm
  • Political Science, Medicine
  • Science
  • 2012
An evolutionary trajectory is traced from this ancestor to extant hunter-gatherers, whose coalitional behavior results in suppressed dominance and competition, except in mate competition. Expand
Ravens Reconcile after Aggressive Conflicts with Valuable Partners
It is shown that reconciliation is more likely to occur after conflicts between partners who share a valuable relationship, and former opponents were less likely to engage in renewed aggression following reconciliation, suggesting that reconciliation repairs damage caused to their relationship by the preceding conflict. Expand
Canine Reconciliation and Third‐Party‐Initiated Postconflict Affiliation: Do Peacemaking Social Mechanisms in Dogs Rival Those of Higher Primates?
Conflicts over food, access to mates, or other limited resources can sometimes escalate into aggression. In species that form social groups, these aggressive conflicts can jeopardize the benefits ofExpand
Reconciliation, consolation and postconflict behavioral specificity in chimpanzees
Evidence for behavioral specificity, i.e. context‐specific use of certain behaviors, was found for both reconciliation and consolation, which, along with high conciliatory tendencies, suggests an explicit style of postconflict behavior in the study subjects. Expand
Post-Conflict Affiliation by Chimpanzees with Aggressors: Other-Oriented versus Selfish Political Strategy
It is proposed that bystander affiliation toward aggressors may function to strengthen bonds between valuable partners, probably as part of political strategies, and suggest that this post-conflict behavior may act as an alternative to reconciliation, in that it is more common when opponents fail to reconcile. Expand
Individual differences in aggressive and peaceful behavior: new insights and future directions
Consistent individual differences in animal behaviour are an increasingly common focus of research across various behavioural and biological sciences. Such ‘animal personalities’ comprise a diverseExpand


Post-conflict reunions and reconciliation in long-tailed macaques
Abstract In gregarious species, friendly post-conflict reunions between former opponents have been interpreted as ‘reconciliatory’ interactions whose function is to repair social relationships thatExpand
Conflict Resolution and Distress Alleviation in Monkeys and Apes
  • F. Waal, F. Aureli
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • 1997
Evidence for behavioral flexibility, the value of cooperation, and the possibility that distress alleviation rests on empathy are discussed, a capacity that may be present in chimpanzees and humans but not in most other animals. Expand
The Integration of Dominance and Social Bonding in Primates
  • F. Waal
  • Biology
  • The Quarterly Review of Biology
  • 1986
Observations demonstrate that relationships among adult male chimpanzees cannot be described in terms of a dichotomy between affiliative and antagonistic tendencies, and that male bonding in this species has not been achieved by an elimination of aggression, but by a set of powerful buffering mechanisms that mitigate its effects. Expand
Post-conflict anxiety in nonhuman primates: The mediating role of emotion in conflict resolution
During the last two decades, much research has focused on the mechanisms used by nonhuman primates for conflict resolution. Reconciliation, i.e., a friendly reunion between former opponents, has beenExpand
On the value of social relationships to nonhuman primates: A heuristic scheme
The biologist’s answer is that there must be gains that outweigh the costs, and that natural selection therefore produced individuals with social inclinations. Expand
Modification of reconciliation behavior through social experience: an experiment with two macaque species.
It is suggested that the social attitude of the subjects was affected through contact with a species characterized by a more relaxed dominance style, which emerged gradually during cohousing with the tutor species and was sustained following removal of this species. Expand
Dyadic and triadic reconciliation in pigtail macaques (Macaca nemestrina)
  • P. Judge
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • American journal of primatology
  • 1991
Results suggest that both dyadic and triadic reconciliations occur in M. nemestrina and that compared to other primate species, the species exhibits a moderate‐to‐high conciliatory tendency. Expand
Reconciliation and Redirected Affection in Rhesus Monkeys
The question whether rhesus monkeys reconcile was empirically translated as: Do they seek non-agonistic contact with former adversaries? The study concerned a captive group of forty-one monkeys,Expand
Functional aspects of reconciliation among captive long‐tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis)
It is suggested that reconciliation can be an effective means to reduce the victim's acute stress and that its function in repairing social relationships can partly be mediated by its physiological effects. Expand
Natural conflict resolution
Preface Acknowledgements Introduction 1. Why Natural Conflict Resolution? Filipo Aureli and Frans B. M. de Waal Part 1 - History Introduction 2. The First Kiss: Foundations of Conflict ResolutionExpand