Primate defensins

@article{Lehrer2004PrimateD,
  title={Primate defensins},
  author={Robert I. Lehrer},
  journal={Nature Reviews Microbiology},
  year={2004},
  volume={2},
  pages={727-738}
}
  • R. Lehrer
  • Published 2004
  • Biology
  • Nature Reviews Microbiology
Defensins are endogenous, cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptides that contribute to host defence against bacterial, fungal and viral infections. There are three subfamilies of defensins in primates: α-defensins are most common in neutrophils and Paneth cells of the small intestine; β-defensins protect the skin and the mucous membranes of the respiratory, genitourinary and gastrointestinal tracts; and θ-defensins, which are expressed only in Old World monkeys, lesser apes and orangutans, are… 
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The present review discusses two of the major classes of mammalian antimicrobial peptides: the defensins and the cathelicidins and focuses on their structures, their main modes of action and their regulation.
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References

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Mouse neutrophils lack defensins
TLDR
It is reported that neutrophils from nine strains of mice lacked appreciable defensin content, suggesting that mice may be imperfect experimental surrogates for humans or rats in models of infection in which neutrophil function is significant.
Roles of antimicrobial peptides such as defensins in innate and adaptive immunity
TLDR
A number of antimicrobial peptides such as defensins have multiple functions in host defence, which endows them with the capacity to marshall adaptive host defences against microbial invaders.
Modulation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae susceptibility to vertebrate antibacterial peptides due to a member of the resistance/nodulation/division efflux pump family.
TLDR
Genetic and biochemical evidence is reported that gonococcal susceptibility to the lethal action of PG-1 and other structurally unrelated antibacterial peptides, including a peptide that is expressed constitutively by human granulocytes and testis and inducibly by keratinocytes, is modulated by an energy-dependent efflux system termed mtr.
Minidefensins: antimicrobial peptides with activity against HIV-1.
TLDR
This review compares defensins and minidefensins with respect to their activity against HIV-1, paying special attention to retrocyclins - the ancestral theta-defensins of humans, and their extant counterparts in rhesus monkeys.
Cathelicidins - a family of multifunctional antimicrobial peptides
TLDR
In conclusion, cathelicidin antimicrobial peptides qualify as prototypes of innovative drugs that may be used to treat infection and/or modulate the immune response and the structures of their genes and peptides are provided.
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