Primate Vocalization, Gesture, and the Evolution of Human Language

@article{Arbib2008PrimateVG,
  title={Primate Vocalization, Gesture, and the Evolution of Human Language},
  author={Michael A. Arbib and Katja Liebal and Simone Pika},
  journal={Current Anthropology},
  year={2008},
  volume={49},
  pages={1053 - 1076}
}
The performance of language is multimodal, not confined to speech. Review of monkey and ape communication demonstrates greater flexibility in the use of hands and body than for vocalization. Nonetheless, the gestural repertoire of any group of nonhuman primates is small compared with the vocabulary of any human language and thus, presumably, of the transitional form called protolanguage. We argue that it was the coupling of gestural communication with enhanced capacities for imitation that made… Expand

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