Primary hyperoxaluria (PH) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of glyoxylate metabolism in humans. It is characterized by the accumulation of oxalate and subsequent precipitation of calcium oxalate crystals, primarily in the kidneys. Deficiencies in glyoxylate-metabolizing enzymes alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGXT) or glyoxylate reductase/hydroxypyruvate reductase (GRHPR) occur in 95% of PH cases. Seven Coton de Tulear puppies from four apparently unrelated litters were examined owing to sudden illness at the age of 3-4 weeks. A complete necropsy was performed. The typical finding was tubular necrosis with extensive oxalate crystal deposition. Based on history and necropsy findings, PH was suspected. Eight microsatellite loci flanking AGXT and GRHPR were analysed, and based on segregation results, AGXT was suspected as to be the candidate gene. AGXT exon sequencing revealed a single base change (c.996G>A) that changed one conserved residue (p.Gly102Ser). The mutation was tested in of 118 Finnish Coton de Tulear dogs, ten (8.5%) of which were revealed as carriers. This preliminary study reports PH as a cause of neonatal death in Finnish Coton de Tulear and suggests that genetic testing of dogs be carried out before breeding to prevent the birth of affected offspring.