Primary pericardial sarcomas are very rare. A 62-year-old Japanese man presented with cardiac tamponade. Echocardiography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed massive pericardial effusion and a large tumor in the pericardial cavity, attached to the pericardium of the left ventricular posterolateral free wall. Surgical excision of the tumor was performed and histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations identified high-grade myofibroblastic sarcoma. Because of local recurrence soon after surgery, the patient received adjuvant chemotherapy, including doxorubicin and ifosfamide, and subsequent radiotherapy. As of 6 months after completing radiotherapy, the patient was alive and no disease progression or distant metastases were evident. This may be the first report of primary high-grade myofibroblastic sarcoma arising from the pericardium.