Primary blepharospasm: diagnosis and management.

  title={Primary blepharospasm: diagnosis and management.},
  author={Giovanni Defazio and Paolo Livrea},
  volume={64 3},
Primary blepharospasm is an adult-onset focal dystonia characterised by involuntary contractions of the orbicularis oculi muscles. Patients may have various types of movements arising from the different parts of the orbicularis oculi muscle. These include typical blepharospasm associated with Charcot's sign, pretarsal blepharospasm and flickering of the eyelids. Primary blepharospasm may be associated with so-called apraxia of eyelid opening as well as dystonia in the lower face, jaw or… CONTINUE READING


Publications citing this paper.
Showing 1-10 of 13 extracted citations

Botulinum Toxin A (Dysport®)

View 3 Excerpts
Highly Influenced

Benign Essential Blepharospasm--There Is More to It Than Just Blinking.

Journal of neuro-ophthalmology : the official journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society • 2015
View 1 Excerpt

Similar Papers

Loading similar papers…