Primary and index cases

  title={Primary and index cases},
  author={Johan Giesecke},
  journal={The Lancet},

Covid-19: Early Cases and Disease Spread

Several clues point to an early regional circulation of SARS-CoV-2 in northern Italy (Lombardi) as soon as September/October 2019 and in France in November/December 2019, if not before.

Identifying the source of an epidemic using particle swarm optimization

Identifying the primary case, denoted as the index case or commonly "patient zero", of an epidemic is a critical part of epidemiological investigation for understanding outbreak occurrence and how to

Household Secondary Transmission of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Alpha Variant From a Community Cluster in a Nursery in Japan

The Alpha variant of SARS-CoV-2 exhibited high transmissibility among children and adults and may pose a high risk for household secondary transmission from SARS–infected children, which could lead to greater transmission from children to adults or other children.

Retrospective, Observational Studies for Estimating Vaccine Effects on the Secondary Attack Rate of SARS-CoV-2

Challenges with using existing databases to identify transmission units and confirm potential SARS-CoV-2 transmission events are highlighted and the impact of common diagnostic testing strategies including event-prompted and infrequent testing is discussed.

Mitigating SARS-CoV-2 Transmission in Hospitals: A Systematic Literature Review

Continuous efforts to train-retrain and enforce correct personal protective equipment use and regular routine screening tests are necessary to stem future hospital outbreaks of SARS-CoV-2.

The COVID-19 Pandemic, a Risk Management Approach

The coronavirus disease-2019 pandemic provides an opportunity to analyze how to detect, minimize, and even prevent the spread of future viral zoonotic agents with pandemic potential.

High secondary attack rate and persistence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in household transmission study participants, Finland 2020–2021

Following detection of a COVID-19 case in a household, other members had a high risk of becoming infected and NAb to early B-lineage SARS-CoV-2 persisted for at least a year in most cases.

Afectación familiar de la enfermedad de Hansen en Costa Rica

Objetivo: el contagio familiar de la enfermedad de Hansen es un hecho bien establecido;aunque la transmisibilidad es baja, los contactos intradomiciliarios de personas enfermassin tratamiento son un

Estimating and interpreting secondary attack risk: Binomial considered biased

An analysis of household surveillance data collected by the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health during the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic shows that multiple generations of transmission can be neglected safely when p is small.


A Dictionary of Epidemiology

The new edition of this classic text remains the definitive dictionary in epidemiology, and the dictionary goes beyond simple definitions, as it place each term firmly and clearly in its fuller epidemiologic context.