Primary adult lactose intolerance and the milking habit: A problem in biological and cultural interrelations

@article{Simoons2005PrimaryAL,
  title={Primary adult lactose intolerance and the milking habit: A problem in biological and cultural interrelations},
  author={Frederick J. Simoons},
  journal={The American Journal of Digestive Diseases},
  year={2005},
  volume={14},
  pages={819-836}
}
  • F. Simoons
  • Published 1 December 1969
  • Geography, Medicine
  • The American Journal of Digestive Diseases
This paper, in two parts, is intended to relate recent medical findings on differences in lactose tolerance among the world's peoples to research on the history of milking. In this section, Part I, the medical research is reviewed, the pattern of group differences in tolerance is sketched, and hypotheses are advanced for these differences and are then evaluated. The evidence supports a genetic etiology for the differences. It also demonstrates that the illness experienced by nonmilking… 

Primary adult lactose intolerance and the milking habit: A problem in biologic and cultural interrelations

  • F. Simoons
  • Medicine
    The American Journal of Digestive Diseases
  • 2005
TLDR
This part turns to a consideration of the conditions of genetic selection that may have led some groups of men to have persistently high levels of intestinal lactase throughout life, and others not.

New light on ethnic differences in adult lactose intolarance

  • F. Simoons
  • Biology
    The American Journal of Digestive Diseases
  • 2005
TLDR
The distribution patterns of tolerance and intolerance are focused on, suggesting that before milkable domesticated animals were available to humans (after about 10,000 Be)all human populations were characterized by the enzyme pattern typical of land mammals.

Lactose intolerance in children and adults

TLDR
Treatment is based on the restriction of lactose intake with the use of fermented milk products, and especially for children, if milk and dairy products are eliminated from the diet, it is important to ensure D vitamin and calcium supplementation.

Lactose Intolerance and Evolution: No Use Crying Over Undigested Milk

TLDR
The "culture-historical" hypothesis of Simoons in the 1970s held that persistent lactase production developed in a dairy herding population in Northern Europe during a time of food scarcity, when the ability to digest milk would have provided a survival advantage.

Primary adult lactose intolerance in the Kivu Lake area: Rwanda and the bushi

  • J. CoxF. Elliott
  • Biology, Medicine
    The American Journal of Digestive Diseases
  • 2005
TLDR
In order to investigate the ethnic differences of lactose intolerance in the Bantu and Hamitic races, lactose loading tests were performed on the populations living around Kivu Lake in central Africa and the results are in favor of a genetic origin of dairy intolerance.

Adult Lactose Tolerance Is Not an Advantageous Evolutionary Trait

TLDR
Evidence does not support the evolutionary hypothesis of lactase persistence in human adults as a consequence of selection, and the rationale of evolutionary analysis tells us that restricting milk to the nursing period of mammals is more efficient than to share it with older individuals.

The Determinants of Dairying and Milk Use in the Old World: Ecological, Physiological, and Cultural

TLDR
This paper weighs the various hypotheses that have been advanced by scholars to explain why, in pre‐modern times, two practices—dairying and use of the milk of domestic animals in human diet—failed to spread into all parts of the Old World where milkable animals were present.

Lactose intolerance – current state of knowledge

TLDR
LCT deficiency (hypolactasia – HL) is caused by a decreased activity of LCT in the small intestinal villi and potentially results in lactose malabsorption what may lead to the development of clinical symptoms and avoiding milk products in the diet.
...

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  • Medicine
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