In the framework of animal conditioning and human associative learning, primacy and recency effects on acquired stimulus control of behavior refer to the superior influence of first-learned and last-learned associations, respectively. Most contemporary associative models of learning anticipate unwavering recency effects and claim support from numerous published studies. But, for pragmatic reasons, almost all of these studies were conducted under select conditions that favored recency effects. When these conditions are not met, recency effects are far from ubiquitous. We review the literature on primacy and recency effects regarding extinction and latent inhibition (i.e., interference between outcomes), with special emphasis on the impact of certain post-training manipulations and test conditions on conditioned responding. Evidence for recency-to-primacy shifts and for memory integration is examined in light of contemporary models of learning.