PURPOSE To evaluate the effectiveness of intraarterial infusion chemotherapy (IAC) with mitoxantrone hydrochloride in patients with previously treated, locally recurrent breast cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS Thirty-nine women (aged 31-82 years) with recurrent breast cancer underwent superselective IAC (25 mg/m2 mitoxantrone hydrochloride every 24 hours) through the subclavian artery branches after heparin administration. The extent of tumor perfusion was monitored with computed tomography during the intraarterial administration of contrast medium. IAC was repeated one to nine times. Patients had previously undergone radiation therapy (n = 39), surgery (n = 20), or systemic chemotherapy (n = 23). RESULTS The overall response rate was 77% (n = 30). Eight patients had complete remission. Progression occurred in three patients. Remission was observed in cases of lymph node involvement (n = 9). Seven patients are still undergoing treatment. Side effects were usually moderate. Nine patients died of systemic tumor spread. In 14 patients, distant metastases developed during the first 18 months of treatment. CONCLUSION IAC is an effective, well-tolerated therapy in patients with locally recurrent breast cancer.