Methyl-beta-cyclodextrin: an alternative carrier for intravenous infusion of palmitate during tracer studies in swine (Sus scrofa domestica).
Injection of phenytoin is often diluted with infusion fluids before administration, which may lead to precipitation of the drug due to changes in pH and/or vehicle. It is not possible to add cyclodextrins to the original injections to prevent precipitation of the drug, because the quantities required would be impractical (>100% w/v). However, from a knowledge of the solubility of phenytoin in cyclodextrin solutions, it is possible to add sufficient amounts of a soluble cyclodextrin to infusion fluids to maintain the solubility of phenytoin after the original injection is diluted to clinical concentrations in the fluid. From solubility measurements, theoretical amounts of hydroxypropyl beta-cyclodextrin (HPCD), sufficient to prevent precipitation of phenytoin, were added to 0.9% w/v sodium chloride solution, adjusted to pH 7.0. Phenytoin injection was diluted to clinical concentrations in the cyclodextrin/NaCl solutions. The mixtures, together with analogous mixtures containing phenytoin, but no HPCD, were stored at 25 degrees C for 3 days. In the presence of the cyclodextrin no precipitates of phenytoin were observed, but in its absence an immediate massive precipitation of phenytoin occurred. This is a flexible method for using soluble cyclodextrins to prevent precipitates of drugs in infusion fluids, provided the cyclodextrin used is not toxic.