Chemoprevention trials with OCP and retinoids will be important to determine if these drugs are effective in selected populations. Further work will be critical to understanding the mechanism of action of OCP in preventing ovarian cancer and if this protective effect will be upheld in the high-risk population. Initial results in the Milan study are promising for the retinoids in prevention of ovarian cancer and will be used in chemoprevention trials both alone and in combination with OCP's to determine if there might be an additive effect with these drugs. As yet, little is known about preinvasive changes in the ovary to predict which women are at risk for developing ovarian cancer. We can now identify high-risk women by genetic counseling and testing, yet ultrasound and serum markers are the only modality available to evaluate these women. Research is focusing on developing ways of evaluating women, particularly those at high risk for ovarian cancer, to better understand the neoplastic process in the ovary and thus identify these women prior to their developing advanced ovarian cancer. Research is also focusing on understanding chemoprevention for ovarian cancer so that women can receive the optimal chemopreventive agent when diagnosed as high risk. Prognosis with advanced disease is so poor that early diagnosis and chemoprevention are the only methods at the current time to significantly improve survival in epithelial ovarian cancer.