Hepatitis B immunization and the use of protective measures against blood contamination were assessed in a group of clinicians associated with invasive procedures. A self-administered confidential questionnaire was sent to 140 surgeons and interventional cardiologists, of whom 105 (75 per cent) replied. Ninety-five respondents (90 per cent) were immunized against hepatitis B, most (63 per cent) by an occupational health department and the majority within 5 years of this study. Only 80 per cent had had their immunity tested after immunization. Barrier protective techniques were used infrequently, with 30 per cent of respondents wearing impermeable gowns, 14 per cent wearing visors and 9 per cent using double-gloving for all procedures. Department of Health guidelines on protection from hepatitis B were published after this survey and the implementation of these guidelines in an NHS trust hospital is discussed.