To sound out prevalent opinions among health authorities in Europe concerning the control and prevention of congenital toxoplasmosis (CT), a questionnaire was sent to the 28 WHO member countries in Europe. The questionnaire was returned by 23 countries. Only 7 countries recommend systematic screening of pregnant women. The reasons given by the 14 countries which do not recommend systematic screening are diverse: recommendations are in preparation, unfavourable cost-benefit return, absence of satisfactory treatment, programme not possible, incidence level too low, etc. 11 countries have a surveillance system for CT, of which only 3 are among the countries which recommend systematic screening. However, the absence of a multidisciplinary approach does not permit proper surveillance of cases. It appears from this survey that control of CT is undertaken in a very heterogeneous manner in Europe and no country has a programme whose impact on CT can be measured. So far, the European experience does not permit conclusions either in favour of or against a programme for the systematic screening of CT. However, cost-benefit analysis plays a very important role in determining whether such a programme should be implemented. Parameters such as the security of diagnosis (standardization of methods, quality and experience of the laboratories) and the monitoring of cases (definition, multidisciplinary approach to the surveillance and long-term treatment of patients, national collection of case reports, evaluation of the programme) are indispensable for the implementation of an effective surveillance system.