Prevention and Treatment of Head Lice in Children

  title={Prevention and Treatment of Head Lice in Children},
  author={Kosta Y. Mumcuoglu},
  journal={Pediatric Drugs},
Head louse infestations (pediculosis) are prevalent worldwide. In developed countries, the infestation rate of 4- to 13-year-old children remains high despite preventive efforts. This is due to the existence of numerous ineffective pediculicides, the incorrect use of the effective agents, toxicological concerns and the development of louse strains resistant to insecticides.One of the most effective tools for the prevention and control of lice is the louse comb, which should be used regularly… 
Assessment of the Efficacy and Safety of a New Treatment for Head Lice
This treatment seems to be a beneficial addition or a valuable alternative to existing treatments, considering the total absence of chemical insecticides, the absence of drug-resistance induction in head lice, the presence of major toxicological risks compared with usual pediculicides, and the favourable patient use instructions.
Evaluation of Treatment with Squill Vinegar in 10 Patients with Head Pediculosis
The effectiveness of Squill vinegar in the treatment of head Pediculosis resistant to treatment is stressed and its implementation in school health units is recommended.
The in vivo pediculicidal efficacy of a natural remedy.
The natural remedy, which contains coconut oil, anise oil and ylang ylang oil, was very effective in controlling louse infestation under clinical conditions and caused no serious side effects.
International recommendations for an effective control of head louse infestations
Health authorities are encouraged to eliminate policies and practices that rely upon school exclusion as a means to reduce incidence and prevalence, e.g., the ‘no‐nit’ policy which lacks scientific justification, and are counterproductive to the health and welfare of children.
New insights in pediculosis and scabies
The biology of the mite, the clinical aspects and diagnosis of scabies infestations, as well as the treatment of choice with permethrin 5% dermal cream and the use of scabicides based on other chemical substances are reviewed.
Treatment of human head lice infestations in a single application with a new galenic lotion
A controlled clinical study was conducted comparing lice infestation and nit hatching observed before and after a treatment in a single application of galenic lotion, a patented meta‐emulsion, that has a mechanical action that asphyxiates lice and nits.
Epidemiological aspects of Pediculosis capitis and treatment evaluation in primary-school children in Iran.
Comprehensive survey in this work showed the better future of the disease and related factors, and it is essential that governments should be supported form cooperation between the school authorities and public health centers to successful control head lice infestation in primary school.
Levamisole: a safe and economical weapon against pediculosis
  • M. Namazi
  • Medicine
    International journal of dermatology
  • 2001
The detection of unhatched nits which were operculated and generally located within one‐quarter of an inch of the scalp was used to indicate the presence of lice infestation and also to judge the clinical response.
Pediculus humanus capitis infestations in the community: A pilot study into transmission, treatment and factors affecting control
It is found that children attending school and early childhood centres, and subsequently their families, are most at risk of contracting pediculosis capitis, and some may carry lice for years, and a strong case exists for returning to institutional surveillance.
What's bugging you? An update on the treatment of head lice infestation
This review provides an overview of the natural history, clinical symptoms and diagnosis of head lice infestation, and summarises the current data on novel treatment strategies, including wet combing, dimeticone, isopropyl myristate, benzyl alcohol, plant-based compounds and oral medication.


A resistance of head lice (Pediculus capitis) to permethrin in Czech Republic.
The lotion containing 0.3% of malathion (Diffusil H92 M) has been fully effective against the resistant lice and when introduced into the practice, it quickly reduced the infestation of children in primary schools.
Permethrin resistance in the head louse Pediculus capitis from Israel
The results suggest that resistance to pyrethroids has developed rapidly among head lice since permethrin was introduced in 1991 as a pediculicide in Israel.
Efficacy of ivermectin for the treatment of head lice (Pediculosis capitis).
It is suggested that ivermectin is a promising treatment of head lice, and a second dose at day 10 should be appropriate for a further comparative trial.
Evaluation of an intervention program for head lice infestation in school children.
Analysis of various characteristics revealed that crowding was the main factor contributing to the variation in the rates of infestation, and a significant success in reducing head lice infestation that was not influenced by variation in socioeconomic status or place of residence.
The efficacy of pediculicides in Israel.
Fourteen pediculicides currently available in Israel were evaluated for their killing effect on the eggs, nymphs and adults from a laboratory-grown colony of body lice (Pediculus humanus humanus).
Permethrin 1% Creme Rinse for the Treatment of Pediculus humanus var capitis Infestation
Permethrin 1% demonstrated high pediculicidal and ovicidal activities, which in combination with its low mammalian toxicity, residual activity, and cosmetic properties, make it an excellent treatment for Pediculosis capitis.
Pyrethroid resistance mechanisms in the head louse Pediculus capitis from Israel: implications for control
A glutathione S‐transferase(GST)‐based mechanism of DDT resistance in the Israeli head lice was identified, and the lack of synergism of phenothrin resistance by piperonyl butoxide suggests that a non‐oxidative mechanism is also present in the resistant lice.
Clinical observations related to head lice infestation.
Comparative study of permethrin 1% creme rinse and lindane shampoo for the treatment of head lice.
The efficacy and safety of permethrin 1% creme rinse and lindane shampoo were compared for the treatment of head lice in Nezahualcoyotl and there were no reports of central nervous system adverse effects or conjunctivitis.