Prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of the overtraining syndrome: joint consensus statement of the European College of Sport Science and the American College of Sports Medicine.

  title={Prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of the overtraining syndrome: joint consensus statement of the European College of Sport Science and the American College of Sports Medicine.},
  author={Romain Meeusen and Martine Duclos and Carl Clinton Foster and Andrew C. Fry and Michael Gleeson and David C. Nieman and John S. Raglin and Gerard J Rietjens and J{\"u}rgen M. Steinacker and Axel Urhausen},
  journal={Medicine and science in sports and exercise},
  volume={45 1},
Successful training not only must involve overload but also must avoid the combination of excessive overload plus inadequate recovery. Athletes can experience short-term performance decrement without severe psychological or lasting other negative symptoms. This functional overreaching will eventually lead to an improvement in performance after recovery. When athletes do not sufficiently respect the balance between training and recovery, nonfunctional overreaching (NFOR) can occur. The… 

Figures and Tables from this paper


The goal of training competitive athletes is to provide training loads that will improve performance. When prolonged, excessive training occurs concurrent with other stressors and insufficient

Overtraining Syndrome in the Athlete: Current Clinical Practice

Identifying markers that correlate with overreaching and overtraining can arrest progression of a potentially negative cycle and possible screening tests and red flags that will assist in preventing OTS from occurring.


The only symptom present in all the different forms of manifestation of OTS is loss of performance, and some tests assessing oxidative stress levels seem promising, even though they are not specific.

Diagnosis and prevention of overtraining syndrome: an opinion on education strategies

Suggestions for management of at-risk athletes despite absence of validated diagnostic tests and preventative measures for overtraining syndrome are provided.

The Clinical Evaluation between Overtraining Syndrome and Exercise-related Immunity

The present study was performed to analyze and review the physical and immune responses to over- training syndrome in humans and will be helpful for athletes and individuals who are at the risk of overtraining syndrome.

Functional Overreaching in Endurance Athletes: A Necessity or Cause for Concern?

The most recent research on FOR in endurance athletes will be critically evaluated to determine if there is sufficient evidence to indicate that inducing a state of FOR is necessary and required to induce a performance super-compensation; the metabolic consequences that are associated with FOR; and strategies that may prevent the negative consequences of overreaching.

Sindrom pretreniranosti u trkača

Overtraining syndrome is a condition of prolonged fatigue and decreased athletic performance caused by excessive training overload without adequate rest and recovery. Outcome can be psychological and

Can clinicians and scientists explain and prevent unexplained underperformance syndrome in elite athletes: an interdisciplinary perspective and 2016 update

It is proposed that causative factors can be identified and UUPS explained, through an interdisciplinary approach (ie, medicine, nutrition, physiology, psychology) to sports science and medicine delivery, monitoring, and data interpretation and analysis.

Physiological and Psychological Effects of Treadmill Overtraining Implementation

The findings reinforce the idea that an imbalance between exercise and recovery can impair health and performance maintenance after overtraining, and establish an animal model to determine the effectiveness of possible strategies for treatment and prevention of overtraining syndromes in future studies.

Clinical and biochemical characteristics of high-intensity functional training (HIFT) and overtraining syndrome: findings from the EROS study (The EROS-HIFT)

A post-hoc analysis of the CF subgroups of the EROS study to evaluate specific characteristics of CF in ATL and OTS found CF-ATL yielded earlier and enhanced cortisol, GH, and prolactin responses to an insulin tolerance test, and more than 90% of the adaptive changes in CF were lost under OTS.



Overtraining in Elite Athletes

Overtraining is an imbalance between training and recovery that can be explained as a stress response and no sensitive and specific tests are available to prevent or diagnose overtraining.

Markers of excessive exercise.

  • D. McKenzie
  • Medicine
    Canadian journal of applied physiology = Revue canadienne de physiologie appliquee
  • 1999
There is no single biological marker that is diagnostic of an overtrained state; however, several parameters deserve further study and the time to volitional fatigue on a cycle ergometer at an intensity of 110% of the individual anaerobic threshold represents a possible laboratory test.

Overtraining in Athletes

An in-depth knowledge of periodisation of training theory may be necessary to promote optimal performance improvements, prevent overtraining, and develop a system for incorporating a screening system into the training programme.

Hormonal responses in athletes: the use of a two bout exercise protocol to detect subtle differences in (over)training status

The results of the case presentation of an overtrained athlete provide evidence of an altered and dysfunctional hypothalamic–pituitary axis response to two bouts of maximal exercise that can be used to develop markers for diagnosis of OTS and to address the pathologic mechanism operative in the syndrome.

Overtraining and Recovery

The TQR method to facilitate monitoring of the recovery process is suggested and a conceptual model that incorporates all of the important parameters for performance gain (adaptation) and loss (mal Adaptation) is proposed.

Overload, Performance Incompetence, and Regeneration in Sport

The Adrenergic Influence on Sleep Stage Shifting in High-Endurance Athletes After Exercise and Mood, Recovery-Stress State, and Regeneration are studied.

Hormonal responses to acute exercise, training and overtraining a review with emphasis on the horse

A summary of previous literature examining the response of the hypothalamic‐pituitary‐adrenal (HPA) axis and the growth hormone‐insulin‐like growth factor‐I (GH‐IGF‐I) axis to acute and chronic exercise as well as overtraining in humans and horses is provided.

Overtraining in endurance athletes: a brief review.

Recommendations for training monitoring can be made, but their relevance in the practice must still be clarified; changes in blood chemistry variables, hormone levels, and nocturnal urinary catecholamine excretion are required.

Monitoring training in athletes with reference to overtraining syndrome.

  • C. Foster
  • Education
    Medicine and science in sports and exercise
  • 1998
It was observed that a high percentage of illnesses could be accounted for when individual athletes exceeded individually identifiable training thresholds, mostly related to the strain of training.