Preventing the return of fear in humans using reconsolidation update mechanisms

@article{Schiller2010PreventingTR,
  title={Preventing the return of fear in humans using reconsolidation update mechanisms},
  author={Daniela Schiller and Marie H Monfils and Candace M. Raio and David C. Johnson and Joseph E LeDoux and Elizabeth A. Phelps},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2010},
  volume={463},
  pages={49-53}
}
Recent research on changing fears has examined targeting reconsolidation. During reconsolidation, stored information is rendered labile after being retrieved. Pharmacological manipulations at this stage result in an inability to retrieve the memories at later times, suggesting that they are erased or persistently inhibited. Unfortunately, the use of these pharmacological manipulations in humans can be problematic. Here we introduce a non-invasive technique to target the reconsolidation of fear… 
The effect of retrieval intervention paradigm to conditioned fear extinction and its neural mechanism
TLDR
The critical brain areas which were proved to be playing an important part in retrieval extinction process and their effect mechanisms, including hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and amygdala are concluded.
Reconsolidation in a human fear conditioning study: A test of extinction as updating mechanism
Human fear extinction and return of fear using reconsolidation update mechanisms: The contribution of on-line expectancy ratings
Targeting memory reconsolidation to prevent the return of fear in patients with fear of flying
TLDR
It is suggested that memory reactivation prior to exposure therapy did not have an impact on clinical measures but may enhance the effect of exposure therapy at the physiological level.
Updating Fearful Memories with Extinction Training during Reconsolidation: A Human Study Using Auditory Aversive Stimuli
TLDR
This study replicated Schiller et al., (2010) behavioral manipulation and extended it to an auditory fear conditioning paradigm based on auditory aversive stimuli instead of electric shock and demonstrated that only the conditioned stimulus that was reminded 10 minutes before extinction training did not reinstate a fear response after a reminder trial consisting of the presentation of the unconditioned stimuli.
Memory reconsolidation with fear-relevant stimuli and self-reported fear of spiders
TLDR
This study sought to examine whether reconsolidation was exhibited in individuals reporting greater fear of spiders, when the material to be reconsolidated was spider related, and demonstrated that it was possible to reconsolidate fear memories by combining extinction with reactivation using fear-irrelevant stimuli.
Harnessing reconsolidation to weaken fear and appetitive memories: A meta-analysis of post-retrieval extinction effects.
TLDR
Findings to date support the continued translation of postretrieval extinction research to human and clinical applications, with particular application to the treatment of anxiety, traumatic stress, and substance use disorders.
Disrupting reconsolidation: pharmacological and behavioral manipulations.
TLDR
It is demonstrated that disrupting reconsolidation by pharmacological manipulations, although selective, undermines the generalization of fear, a key feature of anxiety disorders.
Effects of Cortisol on Reconsolidation of Reactivated Fear Memories
TLDR
The results revealed an enhancing effect of cortisol on reconsolidation of the reactivated memory, which was highly specific, strengthening only the memory of the reactedivated conditioned stimulus and not the non-reactivated one.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 40 REFERENCES
Extinction-Reconsolidation Boundaries: Key to Persistent Attenuation of Fear Memories
TLDR
A behavioral design is described in which a fear memory in rats is destabilized and reinterpreted as safe by presenting an isolated retrieval trial before an extinction session, which permanently attenuates the fear memory without the use of drugs.
Characterization of Fear Memory Reconsolidation
TLDR
It is reported that reconsolidation cannot be reduced down to facilitated extinction and application of reminder shock does not result in the reinstatement of the memory, supporting the idea that reactivation of consolidated memories initiates a second time-dependent memory formation process.
Beyond extinction: erasing human fear responses and preventing the return of fear
TLDR
Oral administration of the β-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol before memory reactivation in humans erased the behavioral expression of the fear memory 24 h later and prevented the return of fear.
Evidence for recovery of fear following immediate extinction in rats and humans.
TLDR
Evidence is found for spontaneous recovery and reinstatement in both rats and humans even when extinction was conducted immediately after fear learning, which does not support the hypothesis that immediate extinction erases the original memory trace and suggests that a close temporal proximity of therapeutic intervention to the traumatic event might be advantageous.
Reconsolidation of episodic memories: a subtle reminder triggers integration of new information.
TLDR
The study demonstrates the crucial role of reminders for the modification of episodic memory, that reconsolidation of episodi memory is time-dependent, and, in contrast to previous reconsolidations findings, that reconsideration is also a constructive process, one that supports the incorporation of new information in memory.
Reconsolidation and Extinction of Conditioned Fear: Inhibition and Potentiation
TLDR
Investigation of the effects of enhancing and blocking NMDA receptor-mediated glutamatergic transmission on the reconsolidation and extinction of a conditioned fear memory showed that the basolateral amygdala is a primary locus of action of systemically administered DCS, and memory reconsolidations can be both disrupted and enhanced.
Different mechanisms of fear extinction dependent on length of time since fear acquisition.
TLDR
Data support a model in which different neural mechanisms are recruited depending on the temporal delay of fear extinction, and suggest that extinction initiated shortly following fear acquisition preferentially engages depotentiation/"unlearning," whereas extinction initiated at longer delays recruits a different mechanism.
Synapse-specific reconsolidation of distinct fear memories in the lateral amygdala
TLDR
It is shown in rats that fear memory retrieval produces a synaptic potentiation in the lateral amygdala that is selective to the reactivated memory, and that disruption of reconsolidation is correlated with a reduction of synaptic potentiated in theateral amygdala.
...
...