Preventing Minor Neck Injuries in Rear Crashes—Forty Years of Progress

  title={Preventing Minor Neck Injuries in Rear Crashes—Forty Years of Progress},
  author={David S. Zuby and Adrian K. Lund},
  journal={Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine},
  • D. Zuby, A. Lund
  • Published 1 April 2010
  • Medicine
  • Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Objective: This article offers a historical review of vehicle design measures that have been implemented to reduce the risk of neck injuries to the occupants of rear struck vehicles. Methods: The literature on regulations, consumer information programs, and efforts by vehicle manufacturers to address whiplash injuries is summarized along with studies evaluating the efficacy of the resulting vehicle design changes. Results: Vehicle designs and, in particular, the designs of seats and head… 
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  • Engineering
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This systematic review will summarize the body of literature on health-related measurement instruments in whiplash, aiming to facilitate the selection of high-quality measurement instrument for researchers and physicians.
Characteristics of Human Responses in a Braked Stationary Lead Vehicle during Low-Speed, Rear-End Collisions
The main aim of this study was to identify whether braking force applied to a stationary lead vehicle in low-speed, rear-end collisions should be considered for whiplash injury mechanism assessment
Upper Cervical Spine Loading Simulating a Dynamic Low-Speed Collision Significantly Increases the Risk of Pain Compared to Quasi-Static Loading With Equivalent Neck Kinematics.
The peak MPS in loading representative of rear-end collisions approached magnitudes previously shown to induce pain in vivo, whereas strain analysis using linear approaches across the facet joint was lower and may underestimate injury risk compared to full-field analysis.


Effects of Head Restraint and Seat Redesign on Neck Injury Risk in Rear-End Crashes
Results indicate that the improved geometric fit of head restraints observed in many newer vehicle models are reducing the risk of whiplash injury substantially among female drivers, but have very little effect among male drivers.
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This study discusses the solutions to guarantee adequate protection against cervical injury in a rear impact with a stiffened seat, while still ensuring the higher restraint effectiveness required in
Head restraint measuring device
Soft tissue neck injuries sustained in rear-end injuries (so-called "whiplash" injuries) are the most common type of injuries resulting from motor vehicle accidents. In fact, in Canada, these
AIS1 Neck Injury Reducing Effect of WHIPS (Whiplash Protection System)
The AIS 1 neck injury reducing effect of WHIPS compared with previous Volvo seats is higher for women than for men, and no clear explanation for the gender differences was found with respect to occupant size.
Seat designs for whiplash injury lessening
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the potential for the reduction of occupants neck injuries, so called "whiplash injuries" (whiplash associated disorder), in rear end collisions. Based upon
Relationship of Dynamic Seat Ratings to Real-World Neck Injury Rates
Seat/head restraints that perform better in dynamic sled tests have lower risk of neck injury than seats that rate poor, especially when considering long-term injuries.
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Automobile head restraints--frequency of neck injury claims in relation to the presence of head restraints.
It was DETERMINED that there was an 18% reduction in the FREQUENCY of CLAIMED NECK InJURies to drivers in cars with headrests as STANDARD EQUIPMENT when compared with the freedom for drivers in carS without head RESTRAINTS as standard equipment.
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  • B. O'neill
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