Prevalence of use and acute toxicity associated with the use of NBOMe drugs

  title={Prevalence of use and acute toxicity associated with the use of NBOMe drugs},
  author={David M. Wood and Roumen Sedefov and Andrew Cunningham and Paul I. Dargan},
  journal={Clinical Toxicology},
  pages={85 - 92}
Abstract Introduction. The 25X-NBOMe series are N-2-methoxybenzyl analogues of the respective 2C-X substituted phenethylamine and include 25B-N(BOMe)2, 25B-NBOMe, 25C-NBOMe, 25D-NBOMe, 25E-NBOMe, 25G-NBOMe, 25H-NBOMe, 25I-NBOMe, 25N-NBOMe and 25iP-NBOMe. There are reports of their use as novel psychoactive substances and associated acute toxicity from Europe, the United States and elsewhere over the last five years. This review will discuss the epidemiology of use and pattern of acute toxicity… 

Case series: toxicity from 25B-NBOMe – a cluster of N-bomb cases

It is suggested that management should be supportive and focused on preventing further (self) harm from 25B-NBOMe, and high doses of benzodiazepines may be required to control agitation.

NBOMes–Highly Potent and Toxic Alternatives of LSD

An updated overview of the pharmacological properties, pattern of use, metabolism, and desired effects associated with NBOMe use is provided and the analytical methods most commonly used for detection and identification of NBOMes and their metabolites are presented.

Characterization of the hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in the metabolism of 25I-NBOMe and 25I-NBOH.

The major CYP enzymes involved in the metabolism of 25I-NBOMe and 25INBOH were identified as CYP3A4 and CYP2D6, respectively.

Recommendations for specimen collection for NBOMe analysis in clinical toxicology

Parents NBOMe may be a reliable urine biomarker, particularly in scenarios following recent drug use as in ED toxicological testing, as well as postmortem fluid and tissue specimens from Medical Examiners’ cases across the United States and around the world.

25C-NBOMe, a Novel Designer Psychedelic, Induces Neurotoxicity 50 Times More Potent Than Methamphetamine In Vitro

It is found that 25C-NBOMe potently reduced cell viability of SH-SY5Y, PC12, and SN4741 cells, with IC50 values of 89, 78, and 62 μM, respectively, and that the inhibition of the Akt pathway and activation of the ERK cascade might be involved in25C- NBOMe-induced neurotoxicity.

NBOMe and 2C substitute phenylethylamine exposures reported to the National Poison Data System

Common clinical effects of NBOMe and 2C exposures were tachycardia, agitation/irritable, hallucination/delusion, confusion, and hypertension.

Beware of blotting paper hallucinogens: severe toxicity with NBOMes

25B-NBOMe is consistent with previous reports of severe NBOMe toxicity, with agitation, tachycardia and mild hypertension, seizures, rhabdomyolysis and acute kidney injury.



Severe clinical toxicity associated with analytically confirmed recreational use of 25I–NBOMe: case series

Clinicians should be alert to this substance, in view of its emergence in Europe as well as in the United States, with stimulant and serotoninergic features predominating following recreational use of 25I-NBOMe.

The NBOMe hallucinogenic drug series: Patterns of use, characteristics of users and self-reported effects in a large international sample

The NBOMe drugs have emerged recently, are frequently bought using the internet and have similar effects to other hallucinogenic drugs; however, they may pose larger risks, due to the limited knowledge about them, their relatively low price and availability via the internet.

NBOMe Designer Drug Exposures Reported to Texas Poison Centers

Use of 2-methoxybenzyl analogues of 2C-X phenethylamines (NBOMe) is increasing in the United States and two patients died during 2012–2013.

Two cases of severe intoxication associated with analytically confirmed use of the novel psychoactive substances 25B-NBOMe and 25C-NBOMe

The NBOMe compounds are highly potent 5HT2A receptor agonists and are also agonists at alpha-adrenergic receptors, which likely account for their serotonergic and sympathomimetic symptoms.

A case of 25I-NBOMe (25-I) intoxication: a new potent 5-HT2A agonist designer drug

A case of self-reported exposure to 25-I (25I-NBOMe), a novel phenethylamine derivative, with subsequent quantification in serum is described, a potent new synthetic drug with apparent significant behavioral toxicity that can be detected and quantified in serum.

NBOMe — a very different kettle of fish …

It is concerned that recent media reports about a 17-year-old Sydney boy who died after allegedly consuming 25Bor 25I-NBOMe might lead to an increase in the incidence of NBOMe toxicity among patients presenting to emergency departments.

2-(4-Iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine (25I-NBOMe): Clinical Case with Unique Confirmatory Testing

A patient presenting following exposure to 25I-NBOMe, a dangerous member of the evolving 2C drug class, was confirmed in a unique manner that could prove helpful in guiding further patient analysis and laboratory studies.

High-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of 2CC-NBOMe and 25I-NBOMe in human serum.

The presented high-performance liquid chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS) method was developed for the detection and quantification of 2CC-NBOMe and 25I- NBOMe in serum of intoxicated emergency department patients and proved suitable for serum clinical toxicology testing.

Two new synthetic cannabinoids, AM-2201 benzimidazole analog (FUBIMINA) and (4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)(1-pentyl-1H-indol-3-yl)methanone (MEPIRAPIM), and three phenethylamine derivatives, 25H-NBOMe 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzyl analog, 25B-NBOMe, and 2C-N-NBOMe, identified in illegal products

Two new types of synthetic cannabinoids, an AM-2201 benzimidazole analog (FUBIMINA, 1) and (4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)(1-pentyl-1H-indol-3-yl)methanone (MEPIRAPIM, 2), and three newly emerged