Sex differences in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components in hypopituitary patients: comparison with an age- and sex-matched nationwide control group
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE Metabolic and body compositional consequences of GH deficiency (GHD) in adults are associated with a phenotype similar to the metabolic syndrome (MetS). PATIENTS We assessed MetS prevalence in adult GHD patients (n = 2531) enrolled in the Hypopituitary Control and Complications Study. Prevalence was assessed at baseline and after 3 yr of GH replacement in a subset of 346 adult-onset patients. RESULTS Baseline MetS crude prevalence was 42.3%; age-adjusted prevalence in the United States and Europe was 51.8 and 28.6% (P < 0.001), respectively. In the United States, age-adjusted prevalence was significantly higher (P < 0.001) than in a general population survey. Increased MetS risk at baseline was observed for age 40 yr or older (adjusted relative risk 1.34, 95% confidence interval 1.17-1.53, P < 0.001), females (1.15, 1.05-1.25, P = 0.002), and adult onset (1.77, 1.44-2.18, P < 0.001). In GH-treated adult-onset patients, MetS prevalence was not changed after 3 yr (42.5-45.7%, P = 0.172), but significant changes were seen for waist circumference (62.1-56.9%, P = 0.008), fasting glucose (26.0-32.4%, P < 0.001), and blood pressure (59.8-69.7%, P < 0.001). Significantly increased risk of MetS at yr 3 was associated with baseline MetS (adjusted relative risk 4.09, 95% confidence interval 3.02-5.53, P < 0.001) and body mass index 30 kg/m(2) or greater (1.53, 1.17-1.99, P = 0.002) and increased risk (with a P value < 0.1) for GH dose 600 microg/d or greater (1.18, 95% confidence interval 0.98-1.44, P = 0.088). CONCLUSION MetS prevalence in GHD patients was higher than in the general population in the United States and higher in the United States than Europe. Prevalence was unaffected by GH replacement, but baseline MetS status and obesity were strong predictors of MetS after GH treatment.