ESBL, MBL and Ampc β Lactamases Producing Superbugs - Havoc in the Intensive Care Units of Punjab India.
Antibiotic resistance among Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) is a rapidly expanding problem due to the organisms’ ability to mutate, and to acquire and transmit plasmids and other mobile genetic elements encoding resistance gene. Beta-lactamase antibiotics are among the most widely prescribed antibiotics worldwide and the emergence of resistance to these agents has resulted in a major clinical crisis (Siddiqui et al., 2014). The βlactam group of antibiotics is widely used to treat the infections caused by the pathogenic bacteria. Due to the extensive use of these antibiotics, βlactamase mediated resistance has raised as major clinical crisis. The newer β-lactamases, including extended-spectrum βlactamases (ESBLs), ampC β-lactamases (AmpC), and metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) have emerged worldwide as a cause of antimicrobial βlactamase mediated resistance in gram negative bacteria (Kumar et al., 2013). ESBLs are still considered as a threat since they are coded by plasmid and can be easily transmitted between species. ESBL producing oraganisms are highly effective in inactivating penicillins, most cephalosporins and aztreonam and are inhibited by βlactamase inhibitors such as clavulanic acid (Fam et al., 2006). ESBL producing isolates, in addition to being International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences ISSN: 2319-7706 Volume 6 Number 4 (2017) pp. 1423-1430 Journal homepage: http://www.ijcmas.com