Combining livestock trade patterns with phylogenetics to help understand the spread of foot and mouth disease in sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East and Southeast Asia.
Case studies were conducted to determine the prevalence and economic importance of Foot and Mouth Disease, and Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia outbreaks in cattle herds in Isingiro and Nakasongola districts respectively. Financial losses associated with FMD and CBPP outbreaks were estimated. There was a very highly negative correlation of reported FMD prevalence with the cattle herd size (r = -0.832, p<0.001). Average reported herd prevalence of FMD was 23.6%. There were no mortalities among large case study herds. The FMD control cost and annual economic cost per head of cattle was highest in small herds. Farmers with small and medium herds incurred higher control costs whereas farmers with large herds experienced the highest milk losses during FMD outbreaks. Average CBPP prophylactic treatment and vaccination costs were highest in the large herds. Economic costs associated with CBPP were mainly due to mortality and treatment costs. Mortality losses accounted for the highest proportion of the total CBPP economic cost for all herds. It is more costly for smallholder farmers who are disproportionately affected by FMD and CBPP to control these diseases. Overall, treatment costs were higher than vaccination costs. Farmers ought to invest more in vaccination against FMD and CBPP rather than wait to incur higher costs in treatment.