Prevalence and Reliability of Phonological, Surface, and Mixed Profiles in Dyslexia: A Review of Studies Conducted in Languages Varying in Orthographic Depth

@article{SprengerCharolles2011PrevalenceAR,
  title={Prevalence and Reliability of Phonological, Surface, and Mixed Profiles in Dyslexia: A Review of Studies Conducted in Languages Varying in Orthographic Depth},
  author={Liliane Sprenger-Charolles and Linda S Siegel and Juan E. Jim{\'e}nez and Johannes C. Ziegler},
  journal={Scientific Studies of Reading},
  year={2011},
  volume={15},
  pages={498 - 521}
}
The influence of orthographic transparency on the prevalence of dyslexia subtypes was examined in a review of multiple-case studies conducted in languages differing in orthographic depth (English, French, and Spanish). Cross-language differences are found in the proportion of dissociated profiles as a function of the dependent variables (speed or accuracy), the classification method (classical vs. regression-based methods), and the control sample (chronological age vs. reading level controls… 
Dyslexia subtypes in languages differing in orthographic transparency: English, French and Spanish
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Subtipos de dislexia en lenguas que difieren en la transparencia ortográfica: inglés, francés y español
The existence of dissociated profiles in developmental dyslexia (the phonological profile with a selective deficit of the phonological reading route, and the surface profile with a selective deficit
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The majority of errors, in all groups, could not be explained by inefficiency of phonological processing, and the importance of visual knowledge/processes will be discussed as a complementary explanation of dyslexic children's delay in writing.
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The overall findings disqualify subtyping based on reading profiles as a classification method to identify cognitively homogeneous subgroups of dyslexic children and show an opaque relationship between the cognitive underpinnings of developmental dyslexia and their behavioral manifestations in reading and spelling.
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