Prevalence and Etiology of Linear Enamel Hypoplasia in Monkeys and Apes from Asia and Africa

  title={Prevalence and Etiology of Linear Enamel Hypoplasia in Monkeys and Apes from Asia and Africa},
  author={Debbie Guatelli‐Steinberg and Mark F. Skinner},
  journal={Folia Primatologica},
  pages={115 - 132}
Ninety-seven specimens of sympatric monkeys and apes from East Malaysia and 115 monkeys and apes from West Africa are examined in order to evaluate the magnitude and nature of the great ape-monkey linear enamel hypoplasia (LEH) ‘dichotomy’. This study demonstrates that great apes from both regions have a higher incidence of LEH and repetitive LEH than do gibbons and monkeys. However, the authors find that the dichotomy is not as clear-cut as previous research suggests, since some monkey samples… 
Linear enamel hypoplasia in the great apes: analysis by genus and locality.
A range of variation for the great apes in enamel hypoplasia frequencies is found when taxon and locality are considered, and it is likely that both biological and environmental factors influence the high frequencies of enamel Hypoplasia exhibited in the great ape.
Linear enamel hypoplasia in gibbons (Hylobates lar carpenteri).
The expression of linear enamel hypoplasia (LEH), a sensitive dental indicator of physiological stress, in Thailand gibbons is described and aspects of crown morphology, perikymata prominence/spacing, enamel thickness, and crown formation spans are potential causes of taxonomic variation in the intertooth distribution.
Analysis and significance of linear enamel hypoplasia in Plio-Pleistocene hominins.
It was additionally found that the average number of perikymata within Australopithecus defects is statistically significantly greater than it is in Paranthropus, thus explaining why Par anthropus defects are not wider than those of Australopitalcus.
A probable genetic origin for pit defects on the molars of Paranthropus robustus
P. robustus has much higher rates of pitting defects, with 47% of deciduous teeth and 14% of permanent teeth affected, relative to all other hominin teeth combined; none of the extant primate samples evidence comparable rates.
Life history, enamel formation, and linear enamel hypoplasia in the Ceboidea.
The relationship between maturation length and LEH frequency within the Ceboidea is explored and a related hypothesis linking the spacing of perikymata, which is influenced by enamel extension rates, is examined.
Hypothesis for the causes and periodicity of repetitive linear enamel hypoplasia in large, wild African (Pan troglodytes and Gorilla gorilla) and Asian (Pongo pygmaeus) apes.
It is concluded that stress in the form of LEH commences as early as 2.5 years of age in all taxa and lasts for several years, and even longer in orangutans, and that this seasonal stress is sufficiently common and of long duration that it may reflect significant stress in recent and, inferentially, fossil apes.
Ecological stress and linear enamel hypoplasia in Cebus.
The results indicate that levels of physiological stress can differ among environments and that habitat and temperature, but not precipitation, may be driving the difference in stress levels among environments.
Enamel hypoplasia in the deciduous teeth of early Miocene catarrhines: evidence of perinatal physiological stress.
  • J. Lukacs
  • Medicine
    Journal of human evolution
  • 2001
An approximately 17-23 Ma antiquity for EH among early catarrhines is established and it is suggested that the neonatal stage of ontogenetic development was sufficiently stressful physiologically to produce disruption in amelogenesis.
Macroscopic and microscopic analyses of linear enamel hypoplasia in Plio-Pleistocene South African hominins with respect to aspects of enamel development and morphology.
This study uses macroscopic and microscopic methods to analyze the expression of linear enamel hypoplasia (LEH) in Plio-Pleistocene South African hominins with respect to differences between Paranthropus and Australopithecus in aspects of enamel development and morphology that are thought to influence LEH expression.


Enamel hypoplasia in sympatric chimpanzee and gorilla
In both species a marked regularity of hypoplastic grooving with an interval of about 11.4% of canine crown height was observed, which appears to reflect a semi-annual cycle of stress which is tentatively linked to the twice-yearly rainy season.
Enamel hypoplasias as indicators of developmental stress in pongids and hominids
Enamel hypoplasia in the deciduous dentition of free-living Liberian chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) is reported, with the total frequency, summed over all teeth in any individual reaches 80%, being expressed in the form of pits rather than transverse lines.
Mineral metabolism and microstructural defects in primate teeth.
  • S. Molnar, S. Ward
  • Materials Science
    American journal of physical anthropology
  • 1975
Samples obtained from certain fre-ranging cercopithcoids show that these species have the least hypomineralizations while man has the most, and the tentative explanation is due to differences in the calcitying properties of the diet and hence a difference in the general state of their health.
Histological study on the chronology of the developing dentition in gorilla and orangutan
This study considers problems in defining stages of tooth development in radiographs of developing ape dentitions and provides data on tooth chronology in Pongo pygmaeus and Gorilla gorilla by using histological methods of analysis.
Assessment of systemic physiological perturbations from dental enamel hypoplasias and associated histological structures
Dental enamel hypoplasias are deficiencies in enamel thickness resulting from physiological perturbations (stress) during the secretory phase of amelogenesis, and their study has begun to extend into other subdisciplines of physical anthropology.
Relationship of enamel hypoplasia to the pattern of tooth crown growth: a discussion.
The defects of enamel hypoplasia can be understood clearly only when examined under the microscope in relation to the structures which mark the development sequence of the tooth crown.
Canine size and shape in male anthropoid primates.
  • J. Plavcan
  • Biology, Environmental Science
    American journal of physical anthropology
  • 1993
This analysis critically examines the claim that there are two types of male canines among anthropoids and tests the hypothesis that relative male canine size and proportional canine shape are related to estimates of intermale competition, diet, and substrate.
Population biology of hookworms in children in rural West Bengal. II. Acquisition and loss of hookworms.
From changes in hookworm egg counts in feces of children in Gangetic West Bengal we estimate that, on the average, each child lost about 11.1 female hookworms during the 1969 post-monsoon dry period
Tana river red colobus and crested mangabey: Results of recent censuses
Differences in the feeding and ranging ecology of the two species may explain why the crested mangabey population suffered a less severe decline than the red colobus.